Video:Gout

From WikiProjectMed
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Gout (Tutorial)
On Commons
Steps for video creation
Step 1Preview my changes (10 sec)
Step 2Upload to Commons (10 min)

Edit with VisualEditor

Definition

Gout is a form of inflammatory arthritis characterized by recurrent attacks of a single red, tender, hot, and swollen joint.[1][2]

Symptoms 1

Pain typically comes on rapidly, reaching maximal intensity in less than twelve hours.[3] The joint at the base of the big toe is affected in half of cases.[4]

Symptoms 2

It may also result in tophi, kidney stones, or urate nephropathy.[3]

Cause 1

Gout is due to persistently elevated levels of uric acid in the blood.[3][2]

Cause 2

This occurs from a combination of diet, other health problems, and genetic factors.[3][2] At high levels, uric acid crystallizes and the crystals deposit in joints, tendons, and surrounding tissues, resulting in an attack of gout.[3]

Cause 3

Gout occurs more commonly in those who regularly eat meat or seafood, drink beer, or are overweight.[3][5]

Diagnosis

Diagnosis of gout may be confirmed by the presence of crystals in the joint fluid or in a deposit outside the joint.[3] Blood uric acid levels may be normal during an attack.[3]

Treatment

Treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), steroids, or colchicine improves symptoms.[3][2][6]

Prevention

Once the acute attack subsides, levels of uric acid can be lowered via lifestyle changes or allopurinol.[3] Taking vitamin C and eating a diet high in low-fat dairy products may be preventive.[7]

Epidemiology 1

Gout affects about 1 to 2% of the Western population at some point in their lives.[3] It has become more common in recent decades.[3]

Epidemiology 2

Older males are most commonly affected.[3]

History

Gout was historically known as "the disease of kings" or "rich man's disease"[3][8] and has been recognized since at least the time of the ancient Egyptians.[3]

References

  1. Chen LX, Schumacher HR (October 2008). "Gout: an evidence-based review". J Clin Rheumatol. 14 (5 Suppl): S55–62. doi:10.1097/RHU.0b013e3181896921. PMID 18830092.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Hui, M; Carr, A; Cameron, S; Davenport, G; Doherty, M; Forrester, H; Jenkins, W; Jordan, KM; Mallen, CD; McDonald, TM; Nuki, G; Pywell, A; Zhang, W; Roddy, E; British Society for Rheumatology Standards, Audit and Guidelines Working, Group. (26 May 2017). "The British Society for Rheumatology Guideline for the Management of Gout". Rheumatology (Oxford, England). 56 (7): e1–e20. doi:10.1093/rheumatology/kex156. PMID 28549177.
  3. 3.00 3.01 3.02 3.03 3.04 3.05 3.06 3.07 3.08 3.09 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 3.14 Richette P, Bardin T (January 2010). "Gout". Lancet. 375 (9711): 318–28. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(09)60883-7. PMID 19692116.
  4. Schlesinger N (March 2010). "Diagnosing and treating gout: a review to aid primary care physicians". Postgrad Med. 122 (2): 157–61. doi:10.3810/pgm.2010.03.2133. PMID 20203467.
  5. Beyl Jr, R. N.; Hughes, L; Morgan, S (2016). "Update on Importance of Diet in Gout". The American Journal of Medicine. 129 (11): 1153–1158. doi:10.1016/j.amjmed.2016.06.040. PMID 27452679.
  6. Shekelle, P. G; Newberry, S. J; Fitzgerald, J. D; Motala, A; O'Hanlon, C. E; Tariq, A; Okunogbe, A; Han, D; Shanman, R (2017). "Management of Gout: A Systematic Review in Support of an American College of Physicians Clinical Practice Guideline". Annals of Internal Medicine. 166 (1): 37–51. doi:10.7326/M16-0461. PMID 27802478.
  7. "Questions and Answers about Gout". National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases. June 2015. Archived from the original on 15 January 2016. Retrieved 2 February 2016.
  8. "Rich Man's Disease – definition of Rich Man's Disease in the Medical dictionary". Free Online Medical Dictionary, Thesaurus and Encyclopedia.