User:QuackGuru/Sand 21

From WikiProjectMed
Jump to navigation Jump to search

https://vaping360.com/vape-news/121287/fda-seeks-19000-penalties-against-four-small-vape-companies/

https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/fda-files-civil-money-penalty-complaints-against-four-e-cigarette-product-manufacturers?utm_medium=email&utm_source=govdelivery

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Regulation_of_electronic_cigarettes

Current legal status of e-cigarettes and nicotine-containing or nicotine-free cartridges in the world:
  Legal to sell nicotine-containing and nicotine-free cartridges
  Legal to sell nicotine-free and nicotine-containing cartridges below certain level
  Legal to sell nicotine-free cartridges; illegal to sell nicotine-containing cartridges
  (De facto) illegal to sell nicotine-containing and nicotine-free cartridges
  Unknown

Electronic cigarettea are still largely unregulated.[1] Regulation of e-cigarettes varies across countries and states, ranging from no regulation to banning them entirely.[2] For instance, e-cigarettes containing nicotine are illegal in Japan, forcing the market to use heated tobacco products for cigarette alternatives.[3] Others have introduced strict restrictions and some have licensed devices as medicines such as in the UK.[4] However, as of February 2018, there is no e-cigarette device that has been given a medical license that is commercially sold or available by prescription in the UK.[5]: 46  As of 2015, around two thirds of major nations have regulated e-cigarettes in some way.[6] Because of the potential relationship with tobacco laws and medical drug policies, e-cigarette legislation is being debated in many countries.[7] The companies that make e-cigarettes have been pushing for laws that support their interests.[8]

The restriction on sales of e-cigarettes—especially to those over a certain age—varies by country.[9] The regulation to lack of regulation to banning e-cigarettes directly affects public health.[10] Many countries such as Brazil, Singapore, Uruguay,[4] and India have banned e-cigarettes.[11] The Tobacco and Vaping Products Act for Canada came in effect on May 23, 2018 which regulates the way tobacco and nicotine-based vaping products are sold, labelled, made, and promoted.[12] The revised EU Tobacco Products Directive came into effect May 2016, providing stricter regulations for e-cigarettes.[13] It limits e-cigarette advertising in print, on television and radio, along with reducing the level of nicotine in liquids and reducing the flavors used.[14] The updated Tobacco Products Directive has been disputed by tobacco lobbyists whose businesses could be impacted by these revisions.[15] Following the UK's withdrawal from the European Union, The Tobacco Products and Nicotine Inhaling Products (Amendment) (EU Exit) Regulations 2020 took the place of the EU Tobacco Products Directive as the governing regulatory body.[16]

As of August 8, 2016, the US FDA extended its regulatory power to include e-cigarettes, e-liquid and all related products.[17] Under this ruling the FDA will evaluate certain issues, including ingredients, product features and health risks, as well their appeal to minors and non-users.[18] E-cigarette and tobacco companies have recruited lobbyists in an effort to prevent the US FDA from evaluating e-cigarette products or banning existing products already on the market.[19] In the US some states tax e-cigarettes as tobacco products, and some state and regional governments have broadened their indoor smoking bans to include e-cigarettes.[20] As of April 2017, 12 US states and 615 localities had prohibited the use of e-cigarettes in venues in which traditional cigarette smoking was prohibited.[21] On December 20, 2019, the minimum age for sale of any tobacco product including e-cigarettes went from 18 to 21 years in the US.[22]

E-cigarettes containing nicotine have been listed as drug delivery devices in a number of countries, and the marketing of such products has been restricted or put on hold until their safety and efficacy has been proven in clinical trials.[23] Since they do not contain tobacco, television advertising in the US is not restricted.[24] Some countries have regulated e-cigarettes as a medical product even though they have not approved them as a smoking cessation aid.[25] A 2014 review stated the emerging phenomenon of e-cigarettes has raised concerns in the health community, governments, and the general public and recommended that e-cigarettes should be regulated to protect consumers.[26] A 2019 review recommends to regulate e-cigarettes at a minimum with the equivalent constraints to those applicable to tobacco products.[27] A 2014 review said regulation of the e-cigarette should be considered on the basis of reported adverse health effects.[25]

Background

Countries and states have created policies to curb underage access and use of vaping products.[28] This including bans on their sale to minors and an increase in taxes on these products.[28] Globally, only 29 countries have imposed complete bans on e-cigarette sales since 2023, while 45 countries, including Canada, the US, the countries of the European Union, and the United Kingdom, have used several approaches to regulate the sale of e-cigarettes.[29]

A 2017 review of global vaping policies found that 68 countries regulate e-cigarettes and that the most frequent cross-national governmental policies include age limits (over 18 years of age), restricting advertisements, and placing bans on vaping in public places, while e-cigarette taxes are not commonly used.[30] In developing countries, where resources are depleted and there is less regulatory oversight, concerns are raised about efforts to protect minors.[30] The Tobacco industry strongly opposed the proposed laws in South Africa in 2021 to place restrictions on e-cigarettes.[30]

Africa

Current legal status of e-cigarettes and nicotine-containing or nicotine-free cartridges in Africa:
  Legal to sell nicotine-containing and nicotine-free cartridges
  Legal to sell nicotine-free and nicotine-containing cartridges below certain level
  Legal to sell nicotine-free cartridges; illegal to sell nicotine-containing cartridges
  (De facto) illegal to sell nicotine-containing and nicotine-free cartridges
  Unknown
  • Algeria: There is no specific law regulating e-cigarettes.[31]
  • Angola: There is no specific law regulating e-cigarettes.[32]
  • Benin: There is no specific law regulating e-cigarettes.[33]
  • Botswana Nicotine and non-nicotine e-cigarettes devices are regulated as tobacco products.[34] Sales are legal to people 21 years old, and advertising is banned.[34]
  • Burundi There is no specific law regulating e-cigarettes.[35]
  • Cameroon There is no specific law regulating e-cigarettes.[36]
  • Cape Verde Nicotine and non-nicotine electronic devices are legal, and banned for use for people under the age of 18.[37] Advertising is banned in the national territory.[37] It is also banned from use in work and public areas, and public transportion.[37]
  • Central African Republic There is no specific law regulating e-cigarettes.[38]
  • Chad There is no specific law regulating e-cigarettes.[39]
  • Comoros There is no specific law regulating e-cigarettes.[40]
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo There is no specific law regulating e-cigarettes.[41]
  • Djibouti There is no specific law regulating e-cigarettes.[42]
  • Egypt In 2020, Egypt implemented taxes on nicotine and non-nicotine e-liquid.[43] In August 2021, there was an announcement that mandates a health warning on the e-liquid packaging.[43]
  • Equatorial Guinea There is no specific law regulating e-cigarettes.[44]
  • Eritrea There is no specific law regulating e-cigarettes.[45]
  • Eswatini There is no specific law regulating e-cigarettes.[46]
  • Ethiopia E-cigarettes and e-liquids are banned from being imported into the country, according to WHO.[1] Must be 21-years of age to purchase e-cigarettes.[2]
  • Gabon There is no specific law regulating e-cigarettes.[47]
  • Gambia E-cigarettes fall under the Tobacco Control Act of 2016 regulations[3] and their sales and use are banned.[4]
  • Ghana E-cigarette products are banned from recreational use and available only with prescription. In July 2023 Ghana's Food and Drug Administration outlawed the recreational use of e-cigarettes.[48] From now on a medical prescription will be required to buy e-cigarettes with and without nicotine.[48]
  • Guinea-Bissau There is no specific law regulating e-cigarettes.[49]
  • Kenya In Decembre 2023, Kenya proposed legislation to ban e-cigarettes.[5]
  • Lesotho There is no specific law regulating e-cigarettes.[50]
  • Liberia There is no specific law regulating e-cigarettes.[51]
  • Libya There is no specific law regulating e-cigarettes.[52]
  • Malawi There is no specific law regulating e-cigarettes.[53]
  • Mauritania There is no specific law regulating e-cigarettes.[54]
  • Mauritius In 2022 a law was passed that banned the import, manufacturing, sale and distribution of e-cigarettes.[55] It is also illegal to use in public places.[55]
  • Morocco As of January 2023, there is a jump in tariff and taxes for e-cigarette products.[6]
  • Mozambique There is no specific law regulating e-cigarettes.[56]
  • Namibia There is no specific law regulating e-cigarettes.[57]
  • Niger There is no specific law regulating e-cigarettes.[58]
  • Nigeria There is no specific law regulating e-cigarettes.[59]
  • Republic of the Congo There is no specific law regulating e-cigarettes.[60]
  • Rwanda There is no specific law regulating e-cigarettes.[61]
  • Senegal E-cigarettes are regulated as tobacco and are legal for sale.[7] Advertisisng is banned.[8]
  • Seychelles In March 2019, a proposal was made to legalize e-cigarette use.[9]
  • Somalia There is no specific law regulating e-cigarettes.[62]
  • South Africa Nicotine e-cigarettes are regulated as scheduled drug (Schedule 3) and are exclusivly available at pharmacies and require a prescription to buy.[63]
  • South Sudan There is no specific law regulating e-cigarettes.[64]
  • Sudan There is no specific law regulating e-cigarettes.[65]
  • Tanzania There is no specific law regulating e-cigarettes.[66] There is a proposal to outlaw the importation, sale and use of e-cigarettes and shisha.[67]
  • Togo Nicotine e-cigarettes are banned for sale to people under 18 years of age.[68] Advertising, use in public areas, and public transportation is also banned.[68]
  • Tunisia E-cigarettes with nicotine are allowed to be purchased.[69]
  • Uganda Under the Tobacco Control Act of 2015, e-cigarettes with or without nicotine are banned from being bought, sold, distributed, imported, or manufactured.[70]
  • Western Sahara: No information available.[10]
  • Zambia: There is no specific law regulating e-cigarettes.[71]
  • Zimbabwe: There is no specific law regulating e-cigarettes, as of September 2, 2022.[72]

Asia

Current legal status of e-cigarettes and nicotine-containing or nicotine-free cartridges in Oceania:
  Legal to sell nicotine-containing and nicotine-free cartridges
  Legal to sell nicotine-free and nicotine-containing cartridges below certain level
  Legal to sell nicotine-free cartridges; illegal to sell nicotine-containing cartridges
  (De facto) illegal to sell nicotine-containing and nicotine-free cartridges
  Unknown
  • Armenia: The sale of e-cigarettes and liquids with and without nicotine is not regulated.[73]
  • Bahrain: The country allows the import of e-cigarettes[74] and taxes them like tobacco products.[75]
  • Bangladesh: Currently e-cigarette is not illegal in Bangladesh and there is no regulation for it. But the Secretary for health education to the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare stated that they have plan to impose ban on the production, import and sale of electronic cigarettes and all vaping tobaccos to prevent health consequences.[76]
  • China: E-cigarettes are regarded as tobacco products in mainland China.[77] Sales of e-cigarettes to people under 18 years of age is prohibited, and non-tobacco flavored e-cigarettes are banned from sale in China.[77] Online sales of e-cigarettes are banned in the same way as tobacco products in China.[78]
    • Hong Kong: Alternative smoking products (ASPs) are defined under Part 2 of Schedule 7 to the Smoking (Public Health) Ordinance (Cap. 371[11]).[79] Import, promotion, production, sale or ownership for business use of ASPs is not permissible and is actionable with a penalty of HK$50,000 and jail time of 6 months.[79]
    • Macau: The sale of e-cigarettes in Macau was banned starting in January 2018.[80] Effective December 5, 2023, the law prohibits the manufacture, distribution, sale, import, and export of e cigarettes.[12] The purpose of the ban is to prevent underage use.[13]
  • East Timor: E-cigarettes are banned.[81]
  • India: On September 18 2019, the Government of India imposed a ban on sale and production of e-cigarettes.[82] Importing e-cigarettes is also illegal in India.[83] E-cigarettes are mostly unregulated and are technically illegal to sell, as they have not received approval from the Central Drugs Standard Control Organization (CDSCO). According to government data, as of July 2019, there were over 460 e-cigarette brands available in the Indian market utilizing varying methods of nicotine delivery and over 7,700 flavours of e-liquids. The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare issued an advisory to restrict the advertisement of e-cigarettes in August 2018. The CDSCO notified all state drug controllers on 22 February 2019 that ENDS products were not approved for sale, and asked them to ensure that the sale of such products was prohibited. There was confusion over what law could be applied to regulate e-cigarettes. On 1 June 2019, experts at a drug consultative committee meeting concluded that ENDS devices fell under the definition of "drug" under Section 3(b) of the Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940.[84] The State Drugs Controller of the state of Punjab declared e-cigarettes with nicotine as an unapproved drug in 2013.[85] On 7 April 2016, a District Court in the Punjab sentenced a man to 3 years imprisonment and a fine of 1 lakh (US$1,300) for selling e-cigarettes. This was the first ever conviction in India concerning e-cigarettes.[86] The states of Bihar, Haryana, Karnataka, Kerala, Jammu and Kashmir, Maharashtra, Mizoram, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh and the union territory of Chandigarh have declared e-cigarettes as an unapproved drug under the Drugs and Cosmetics Act and Rules, 1945, and can prosecute sellers under the Drugs and Cosmetics Act and Rules, 1945.[84][87]
  • Indonesia: From 1 July 2018, Indonesian Government starting to impose 57% tax on e-liquid, but then postponed until 1 October.[88] Indonesian Government estimates the contribution from the tax would contribute around 100-200 billion rupiah.[89] The tax is based on Finance Ministerial Regulation No. 146/010/2017 on tobacco.[90]
  • Iran, Islamic Republic of: Sale or distribution of e-cigarettes is illegal.[91]
  • Israel: In 2013, the Ministry of Health planned to extend existing laws on smoking in public places to e-cigarettes, a year after warning against the product's usage.[92]
  • Japan: E-cigarettes containing nicotine were banned starting in 2010.[93] Non-nicotine e-cigarettes are sold to adults and minors since no regulation exists for non-nicotine e-cigarettes in Japan.[93] Now it is legal if the e-cigarette is registered as a medicinal product.
  • Kuwait: In 2016, the sale, importation and usage of e-cigarettes was made legal.[94]
  • Malaysia: In 2015, the Malaysian National Fatwa Council issued a fatwa declaring e-cigarettes haram (forbidden) because of their harmful health effects and bad smell.[95] Though the fatwa is not legally binding,[96] it carries weight for religious Muslims and has caused the governments of four majority-Muslim states—Penang, Kedah, Johor, and Kelantan—to ban vaping.[95] As a response to the fatwa, the Malaysian federal government began regulating e-liquid ingredients and vape sales to minors in 2018, marking the first federal regulations of the 2.5 billion ringgit (US$610 million) industry.[97] A petition called "Selamatkan anak-anak Malaysia" was launched by Parent & Teacher Action Group Malaysia to urge government to ban (totally) e-cigarette and vape in Malaysia, which they managed to collect more than 100,000 signatures so far.[98]
  • Nepal: Under current cigarette laws, the sale of e-cigarettes is permitted.[99]
  • Pakistan:The import and sale of e-cigarettes is legal, but Pakistan Medical and Dental council find that the current health safety assessments of e-cigarettes to not yet be satisfactory.[99]
  • Palestine: Regulations of e-cigarette use is unknown, but the sales of e-cigarettes is banned by the Palestinian National Authority.[100]
  • Philippines: The sale of e-cigarettes had been regulated under Executive Order 106 from 2020 under former president Rodrigo Duterte,[101] and is now regulated under Republic Act 11900 or the "Vape Regulation Bill", which lapsed into law on July 25, 2022 under the administration of President Bongbong Marcos.[102] The government bans the use and sale of e-cigarettes, heated nicotine products, novel tobacco products, or their components to a person below 18 years of age,[103] and was drafted under the principle of harm reduction.[104]
  • Qatar: E-cigarettes have been illegal since 2014.[105]
  • Saudi Arabia: Importation of e-cigarettes is banned as of 2012, except in small quantities for personal use, as is sale in public shops.[106] However, personal consumption of e-cigarettes is permitted for those over age 18 in Saudi Arabia. Use of e-cigarettes is banned in many public, educational, religious, and cultural spaces, as well as in certain private spaces such as elevators, restrooms, and food production facilities.[107] The Ministry of Health considers e-cigarettes tobacco products.[107]
  • Singapore: E-cigarettes are currently prohibited under Section 16 (1) of the Tobacco (Control of Advertisements and Sale) Act, which is enforced by the Health Sciences Authority (HSA). This legislation prohibits the importation, distribution, sale or offer for sale of any confectionery or other food product or any toy or other article that is designed to resemble a tobacco product or the packaging of which is designed to resemble the packaging commonly associated with tobacco products. HSA takes a serious view on any person who contravenes the law. Those guilty of the offence are liable to a fine of up to $5,000 upon conviction.[108] According to Health Minister Khaw Boon Wan, e-cigarettes are the industry's attempt to attract new users and were marketed to appeal to younger customers, including women.[109]
  • South Korea: The sale and use of e-cigarettes is legal, but is heavily taxed. Electric cigarette possession among teenagers remains an issue.[110]
  • Taiwan: The sale and import of e-cigarettes is illegal in the Taiwan area. Passengers are not allowed to carry e-cigarettes and e-liquids into Taiwan.[111]
  • Thailand: Thailand has banned e-cigarettes since 2014.[112]
  • United Arab Emirates: The sale and use of e-cigarettes has become legal from 15 April 2019.[113]
  • Yemen: No specifc e-cigarette regulations exist in Yemen.[14]

Oceania

Current legal status of e-cigarettes and nicotine-containing or nicotine-free cartridges in Oceania:
  Legal to sell nicotine-containing and nicotine-free cartridges
  Legal to sell nicotine-free and nicotine-containing cartridges below certain level
  Legal to sell nicotine-free cartridges; illegal to sell nicotine-containing cartridges
  (De facto) illegal to sell nicotine-containing and nicotine-free cartridges
  Unknown
  • Australia: The Federal Department of Health and Ageing classifies every form of nicotine, except for replacement therapies and cigarettes, as a form of poison.[114][115] In Australia, there are no laws pertaining to the regulation of e-cigarettes.[116] Although there are a number of laws that are relevant to the regulation of poisons, therapeutic goods, and tobacco control which are applicable to e-cigarettes in certain cases.[116] Australia is developing regulations on e-cigarettes.[117] The sale of e-cigarettes must be registered with the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) before being sold.[118] Importation of e-cigarettes and their related products, if they claim to help people quit smoking, is illegal unless approved by the TGA.[118] The TPA has said that there were no laws preventing the importation of e-cigarettes bought over the internet for personal use, unless prohibited by state and territory legislation.[119] State laws in Australia's various states are a little bit conflicting. According to the Poisons Standard of 2010, inhaled nicotine is Pharmacy Only, or a Schedule 2 medication when used to help quit smoking.[120] In April 2014 a court decision made it illegal to sell or supply e-cigarettes regardless of their appearance or nicotine content (even if zero) in Western Australia.[121] Previously they were banned if they looked like cigarettes. The court ruled that the action they provided in and of itself looks like cigarettes. Precise rules in the other states vary.
  • Fiji: Nicotine and nicotine-free e-cigarettes are not legal for sale to people udder 18 years of age.[122] They are also not allowed to be advertised or used in certain enclosed public areas or in public transportation.[122]
  • Federated States of Micronesia:
    • Chuuk:
    • Kosrae:
    • Pohnpei:
    • Yap:
  • New Zealand: The Smokefree Environments and Regulated Products (Vaping) Amendment Act 2020 passed on November 11, 2020.[123] It requires vape shops who have sales of no less than 50% of vaping products to apply as a specialist vape shop or they will be considered as a general retailer.[124] On November 11, 2021, specialist vape shops must convert to a general retailer.[124] General retailers are limited to selling tobacco, mint, or menthol flavors of vaping products.[124] On February 11 2022, vaping products are required to have an up-to-date notification from the government before they are allowed to be sold.[124] E-cigarettes cannot be sold to anyone under the age of 18.[125]
  • Palau: Sales of nicotine e-cigarettes are legal to those 21 years of age and up.[126] Advertising and sponsorship is illegal.[126]
  • Papua New Guinea: E-cigarettes are not legal for sale to people under 18 years of age.[127] Promotion of products is banned.[127]
  • Samoa:
  • Solomon Islands:
  • Tonga:
  • United States:
    • American Samoa:
    • Guam: In 2019, it became illegal to use e-cigarettes where smoking is curently banned.[15]
    • Northern Mariana Islands:
  • Vanuatu:

Europe

European Union

Current legal status of e-cigarettes and nicotine-containing or nicotine-free cartridges in Europe:
  Legal to sell nicotine-containing and nicotine-free cartridges
  Legal to sell nicotine-free and nicotine-containing cartridges below certain level
  Legal to sell nicotine-free cartridges; illegal to sell nicotine-containing cartridges
  (De facto) illegal to sell nicotine-containing and nicotine-free cartridges
  Unknown

On 19 December 2012 the European Commission adopted its proposal to revise the European Union Tobacco Products Directive 2001/37/EC which included proposals to introduce restrictions on the use and sales of e-cigarettes.[128][129][130] On 8 October 2013 the European Parliament in Strasbourg voted down the commission's proposal to introduce medical regulation for e-cigarettes, but proposed that cross-border marketing of e-cigarettes be regulated similarly to tobacco products, meaning that sales of e-cigarettes to under-18s would be prohibited in the European Union, along with most cross-border advertising. Warning labels also would be required. The Parliament and Member States are involved in trilogue discussions to reach a common conclusion.[131]

In February 2014, the European Parliament approved new regulations for tobacco products, including e-cigarettes.[132] The new regulations forbid advertising of e-cigarettes, set limits on maximum concentrations of nicotine in liquids, limit maximum volumes of liquid that can be sold, require child-proof and tamper-proof packaging of liquid, set requirements on purity of ingredients, require that the devices deliver consistent doses of vapor, require disclosure of ingredients and nicotine content, and empower regulators to act if the regulations are violated.[133] In October 2014 e-cigarette manufacturer Totally Wicked won the right to challenge the directive at the Court of Justice of the EU. The hearing took place on 1 October 2015 and the results will not be announced until early 2016.[134][needs update]

In autumn 2013, the e-cigarette industry ran "a determined lobbying campaign" to defeat proposed European legislation to regulate e-cigarettes like medical devices.[135] Pharmaceutical manufacturers GlaxoSmithKline and Johnson & Johnson have lobbied the US government, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the EU parliament for stricter regulation of e-cigarettes which compete with their products Nicorette gum and nicotine patches.[136]

The revised EU Tobacco Products Directive came into effect May 2016, providing stricter regulations for e-cigarettes.[13] It limits e-cigarette advertising in print, on television and radio, along with reducing the level of nicotine in liquids and reducing the flavors used.[14] It does not ban vaping in public places.[137] It requires the purchaser for e-cigarettes to be at least 18 and does not permit buying them for anyone less than 18 years of age.[5]: 39  The updated Tobacco Products Directive has been disputed by tobacco lobbyists whose businesses could be impacted by these revisions.[15] In 2018, the Royal College of Physicians asked that a balance is found in regulations over e-cigarettes that ensure product safety while encouraging smokers to use them instead of tobacco, as well as keep an eye on any effects contrary to the control agencies for tobacco.[138]

Elf Bar and other flavored vapes are banned in certain regions in Europe, such as Hungary, where local rules are stricter than EU tobacco laws.[139]

Other countries

A no vaping sign on public transport in Scotland
A no vaping sign on public transport in Scotland
  • Albania: No information is available.
  • Austria: Nicotine-containing cartridges are classified as medicinal products and e-cigarettes for nicotine inhalation as medical devices. Nicotine cartridges may not be sold without a license.[140]
  • Belarus: No information is available.
  • Belgium: A royal decree legalized the sale of nicotine containing cartridges outside of pharmacies as long as the cartridge contains not more than 2 ml and a maximum of 20 mg/ml of nicotine. The sale to a minor under the age of 18 years is prohibited.[141]
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina: Nicotine-containing cartridges are not classified as tobacco products, and therefore the sale is not regulated.[142]
  • Bulgaria: The sale and use of e-cigarettes are legal, as well as the sale of cartridges and liquids with nicotine[143]
  • Croatia: Advertising is restricted. Vaping is banned in all public enclosed facilities. By a law passed by the parliament e-cigarettes are classified as tobacco products. Therefore, vaping is banned in all public buildings, and the sale to a minor is prohibited.[144]
  • Cyprus: No information is available.
  • Czech Republic: Sales are prohibited to people under 18 years of age.[145] The use and advertising of e-cigarettes are legal.[146] Sale of e-cigarettes is regulated in the same way as sale of conventional cigarettes – as such, e-cigarettes cannot be sold to minors and can be sold only at places permitted to sell conventional cigarettes. Online sale with mail delivery is de facto illegal due to the impossibility for age verification,[145] however this rule is not enforced and there are plenty of e-shops.
  • Denmark: Advertising is restricted. The Danish Medicines Agency classifies e-cigarettes containing nicotine as medicinal products. Thus, authorization is required before the product may be marketed and sold, and no such authorization has currently been given. The agency has clarified, however, that e-cigarettes that do not administer nicotine to the user, and are not otherwise used for the prevention or treatment of disease, are not considered medicinal devices.[147][148]
  • Estonia: The Estonian State Agency of Medicines had previously banned e-cigarettes, but the ban was overturned in court on 7 March 2013.[149] Currently e-liquids containing more than 0.7 mg/ml of nicotine are still considered medicine and as such cannot be legally purchased within the country due to no manufacturer being licensed properly. Following the outcome of EU tobacco directive in October 2013, the legislation is moving towards a more relaxed stance on the issue. As stated by the Estonian minister of social affairs Taavi Rõivas (in charge of tobacco regulation), e-cigarettes will receive an advertisement ban and will clearly be banned for minors but will be available for adults before the end of 2013.
  • Finland: The National Supervisory Authority of Welfare and Health (Valvira) declared that the new tobacco marketing ban (effective 1 January 2012) would also cover e-cigarettes,[150] resulting in that Finnish stores or web stores can't advertise e-cigarettes because they might look like regular cigarettes. In theory, e-cigarettes with nicotine-free cartridges may still be sold, as long as their images and prices are not visible. Ordering from abroad remains allowed. Sale of nicotine cartridges is currently prohibited, as nicotine is considered a prescription drug requiring an authorization that such cartridges do not yet have. However, the Finnish authorities have decided that nicotine cartridges containing less than 10 mg nicotine, and e-liquid containing less than 0.42 g nicotine per bottle, may be legally brought in from other countries for private use. If the nicotine content is higher, a prescription from a Finnish physician is required. From a country within the European Economic Area a maximum of one year's supply may be brought in for private use when returning to Finland, while three months' supply may be brought in from outside the EEA. Mail-order deliveries from EEA countries, for a maximum of three months' supply, are also allowed.[151][152]
  • France: The sales of e-cigarettes or machines that imitate smoking, as well as the sale of cartridges containing or not containing nicotine, are prohibited to people under 18 years of age.[153] The e-cigarettes are considered neither as a medical device nor as a medicine, according to a 2011 opinion of the National Agency for the Safety of Medicines and Health Products (ANSM), if it is not claimed by its sellers as a smoking cessation product, if the level and amount of nicotine do not exceed the thresholds of (20 mg / ml) and 10 mL respectively. In January 2017, the French Health Law transposing the European Directive on Tobacco Products came into force and establishes a list of places where smoking is prohibited. Offenders are liable to a fine of 150 euros or more. The persons responsible for the places where the prohibition applies and who have not put in place the signage will be fined 450 euros.[154]
  • Georgia: Until the introduction of new tobacco laws that was passed in 2018, there were virtually no regulation in e-cigarettes. However, since the passing of the Tobacco-Control Law 2017, persons caught smoking including using e-cigarettes have been prohibited in all enclosed areas, bar private houses and casinos and public transport, but not taxis, watercraft and designed areas in airports.[155]
  • Germany: Sales of e-cigarettes are prohibited for people under 18 years of age since transposition deadline for member states of the European Union[156] regarding the Tobacco Products Directive (2014/40/EU) (including non-nicotine-containing cartridges).[157] The use of such is not allowed in restaurants, where they are sold, and other public places.[157]
  • Greece: The marketing of e-cigarettes is banned unless a Ministerial decision authorises them under certain conditions. Sales of e-cigarettes are prohibited for people under 18 years of age (only for nicotine-containing cartridges).[158]
  • Hungary: The sale of nicotine-containing cartridges is legal as long as they are packaged in volumes of 10ml maximum in bottles and only sold at the official 'Nemzeti Dohánybolt' (National Tobacco Shops). At least 30% of the packaging must indicate the following text, "This product contains nicotine, which causes a strong addiction"[159] The same restrictions apply to the sale of any e-cigarette and refillable tanker liquids as to any other tobacco product, therefore the legal purchasing age is 18 years.[159]
  • Iceland:[160]
  • Ireland: In Ireland, the legal age to buy a vape and use it is 18. Vape juice bottles must not under European Union Law come in a bottle more than 50ml.[146][161]
  • Italy: Sales of e-cigarettes are prohibited for people under 18 years of age (only for nicotine-containing cartridges).[162] In 2013 the minimum age of 16 years for the sale of cartridges containing nicotine was raised to 18 years.[163][164] Whoever now sells cartridges containing nicotine to a person under 18 years of age can be fined 250-€2,000.
  • Kosovo: No information is available.
  • Latvia: The sale and use of e-cigarettes are legal.[165]
  • Liechtenstein: Sales of e-cigarettes to people under 16 years of age is prohibited.[166] All other laws regarding sales and imports are carried over from the laws of Switzerland.[citation needed]
  • Lithuania: The sale and use of e-cigarettes are legal.[165]
  • Luxembourg: The sale and use of e-cigarettes are legal, and sales of e-cigarettes are prohibited to under 18s.[167] Since a new tobacco law was introduced in 2017, persons cannot personally import e-cigarettes or e-liquid from abroad by post and vaping is prohibited in enclosed spaces like bars and restaurants.[168]
  • Malta: Sales and use of e-cigarettes under 18 years of age is prohibited.[169] Since 2010 products and smoking devices which are simulating cigarette or tobacco smoking are included to "tobacco products" as considered in the Tobacco (Smoking Control) Act.[170]
  • Moldova: No information is available.
  • Montenegro: No information is available.
  • Netherlands: Since 2017, sales of e-cigarettes to people under 18 years is prohibited. Sales of e-liquid refills are regulated; with a maximum size of 10 ml per package, a maximum nicotine concentration of 20 mg/ml and strict labeling requirements including warning labels about harmfulness of nicotine.[171] Marketing of e-cigarettes are limited to signs in shops. Dutch residents can order devices and liquids from aboard, but only from the EEA.[172] The laws on plain packaging for tobacco which came about in 2020, extends to e-cigarettes in 2022.[173] Flavored vapes banned since January 2024.[174]
  • North Macedonia: No information is available.
  • Norway: The sale and use of e-cigarettes are legal,[146] but nicotine cartridges can only be imported from other EEA member states for private use.[175] Norway does not allow e-cigarette advertising.[176]
A no smoking and no vaping sign in a bus in Gdansk, Poland.
A no smoking and no vaping sign in a bus in Gdansk, Poland.
  • Poland: Since a revision of the tobacco prohibition law in 2016.[177] There has been a large change in the e-cigarette regulation, previously where it was very loose. Currently there is ban on sales to under 18s, prohibition of marketing, sales online, in cigarette machines and a ban in hospitals and all public transport including PKP train stations but not in airports. Vapers who break the laws are liable to a fine of up to 500 zloty (approximately €109.70).[178]
  • Portugal: The sale of nicotine-containing cartridges is restricted.[146]
  • Romania: The sale and use of e-cigarettes are legal; from 2016 the liquid used in e-cigarettes will have an excise duty.[179]
  • Russia: E-cigarettes are not considered to be a tobacco product in Russia according to the Ministry of Health therefore sales and possessions of such devices are unregulated.[180]
  • Serbia: No information is available.
  • Slovakia: No information is available.
  • Slovenia: No information is available.
  • Spain: Sales of e-cigarettes to people under 18 years is prohibited.[181] The sale of products that imitate smoking (which also includes e-cigarettes) to minors is illegal. The Ministry of Health also said that the use and sale of e-cigarettes will soon be regulated.[182]
  • Sweden: Sale of e-cigarettes is legal to sell for anyone, but sales of nicotine e-liquid is illegal to sell to anyone under the age of 18.
  • Switzerland: In 2018, local Swiss businesses successfully challenged the illegality of nicotine-containing liquids within the federal courts, immediately lifting the ban and enabling the sales of nicotine liquids countrywide, and in neighbouring Liechtenstein, which follows the same laws.[183] As of December 2011, the tobacco tax does not apply to e-cigarettes and respective liquids containing nicotine.[184]
  • Turkey: Sales and importation are effectively banned. Regulation of e-cigarettes is done by law 4207, which regulates smoking and was amended in June 2013 by article 26 of law 6487[185] to also apply to items which do not contain tobacco: "Herbal water pipes and all kind of cigarettes which do not contain tobacco but are used in a way to imitate tobacco products shall also be deemed as tobacco products."[186] This law requires for tobacco and related products to be licensed in order to be produced and to be imported. Since there have been no licenses given for production and importation has been banned.[187] Vaping, being under regulation of the 4207th law, is thus forbidden indoors and on public transport, and also therefore forbidden for people under 18 years old. And thus, like tobacco products, personal import by mail or courier is forbidden. In May 2013 the Minister of Health stated that e-cigarettes, which contain nicotine, are medical devices and thus cannot be imported unless approved by the "Turkish Medicines and Medical Devices Agency".[188] But according to a WHO report as of 2014 e-cigarettes are not regulated as a therapeutic product.[189]
  • Ukraine: On July 31, 2021, a law was passed that bans vaping in public areas in addition to advertising, sponsoring. and promoting of such products.[190] The law also restricts the sales flavored e-liquids to just tobacco flavors.[190] Their sale to those who have not reached 18 yet is illegal.[16] Up to 20 mg/ml in the e-liquid is legal.[191]
  • United Kingdom: In the United Kingdom, the use, sale and advertising of e-cigarettes are legal, and e-cigarettes are not covered by laws restricting smoking in public places.[192] However, businesses may choose to ban e-cigarettes. A notable example is Transport for London, banning smoking and vaping as their Conditions of Carriage.[193] Most trains (and train platforms), airports, and coaches for public transportation have banned the use of e-cigarettes.[194] Effective 1 October 2015, it is illegal to sell e-cigarettes or e-liquids to minors.[195] In 2014 the government announced legislation would be brought forward to outlaw the purchase of e-cigarettes by people under the age of 18.[192] In October 2014 the UK's Advertising Standards Authority changed the regulations on e-cigarette advertising, allowing the devices to appear in TV ads from 10 November.[196] The first advert to take advantage of the change, promoting KiK e-cigarettes, aired on the day it came into force.[197] In June 2015 the Welsh Government announced that under legislation it planned to pass, in Wales e-cigarettes would be included in existing bans on smoking in workplaces and other public spaces.[198] In 2018, the Royal College of Physicians has recommended that regulation be proportionate in aiming to assure the safety of the devices, encouraging smokers to vape rather than use tobacco, and identify and stop effects that oppose the long-term objectives of the tobacco control strategy.[199] As part of the EU's Tobacco Products Directive (TPD) directives set out in 2014, which came into effect in 2017, the maximum nicotine content of a liquid allowed within the UK is 20 mg/ml, and bottles may not contain more than 10ml of liquid and must be child-proof and tamper evident. Likewise, atomisers sold within the country cannot have a capacity of more than 2ml. In addition, certain additives within flavourings/liquids are banned (such as caffeine, taurine and certain colourings). Finally, all e-cigarettes and liquids sold within the UK must be registered with MHRA by their respective manufacturers before they can be legally sold.[200] Following the United Kingdom's withdrawal from the European Union, The Tobacco Products and Nicotine Inhaling Products (Amendment) (EU Exit) Regulations 2020 took the place of the TPD as the governing regulatory instrument.[16]
    • Gibraltar: Sales of e-cigarettes is legal.[201]

The Americas

Current legal status of e-cigarettes and nicotine-containing or nicotine-free cartridges in the Americas:
  Legal to sell nicotine-containing and nicotine-free cartridges
  Legal to sell nicotine-free and nicotine-containing cartridges below certain level
  Legal to sell nicotine-free cartridges; illegal to sell nicotine-containing cartridges
  (De facto) illegal to sell nicotine-containing and nicotine-free cartridges
  Unknown
  • Argentina: The sale, importation and manufacturing of e-cigarettes have been banned by the local regulatory authority. Its use has also been discouraged by the National Clinical Practice Guideline for Tobacco Cessation from lack of enough evidence.[202]
A no vaping sign in Canada
A no vaping sign in Canada
  • Anguilla Unknown.
  • Antigua and Barbuda The sale of e-cigarettes to minors is not legal.[203] They are also banned from use in indoors areas.[203]
  • Argentina The sale and distribution of e-cigarette products is prohibited.[204]
  • Bahamas Unknown.
  • Barbados In 2017, The Health Service Amendment Bill became law which defines e-cigarettes as electronic smoking devices.[205] This law extends the existing smoking ban to including e-cigarettes.[205]
  • Belize Unknown.
  • Brazil: The sale, importation and advertising of any kind of e-cigarette is forbidden.[206] However the law provides a potential avenue for the future sale of e-cigarettes.[206] The Brazilian health and sanitation federal agency, Anvisa, found the current health safety assessments about e-cigarettes to not be yet satisfactory for commercial approval eligibility.[207]
  • Bermuda The sale of e-cigarettes is legal but there are restrictions such as a minimum age to purchase and where they are allowed to be sold.[208]
  • Bolivia The sale of e-cigarettes is legal but there are restrictions such as a minimum age to purchase and where they are allowed to be sold.[209]
  • British Virgin Islands Unkown.
  • Canada: In 2014, e-cigarettes were mostly unregulated.[210] Canada-wide in 2014, they were technically illegal to sell, as no nicotine-containing e-cigarettes are not regulated by Health Canada, but this is generally unenforced and they are commonly available for sale Canada-wide.[211] In 2016, Health Canada announced plans to regulate vaping products.[212] The Tobacco and Vaping Products Act for Canada came in effect on May 23, 2018 which regulates the way tobacco and nicotine-based vaping products are sold, labelled, made, and promoted.[12] The Tobacco and Vaping Products Act lets adults to purchase nicotine-containing e-cigarettes,[12] though e-cigarette companies are not permitted to market or sell their products to youth.[213] Vancouver bans use of e-cigarettes in public places where smoking is prohibited. Toronto bans use of e-cigarettes in city work spaces.[214] The governing Liberals recently introduced a provincial legislation in Ontario to regulate e-cigarette devices.[215] Local vape shops in Ontario currently trying to Fight Bill 45.[216] The city of Red Deer bans electronic cigarette use where smoking is prohibited.[217] In 2020, Health Canada proposed to reduce the nicotine levels from 60 mg/ml to a maximum of 20 mg/ml and ban the sales of e-cigarette products that surpasses that limit.[218] In 2020, Health Canada had been contemplating to limit the flavors in e-cigarette products.[218] Only tobacco flavor is permitted in New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Nunavut and the Northwest Territories.[219] The maximum concentration of nicotine allowed 20 mg/mL[220]
  • Prince Edward Island Unkown.
  • Cayman Islands Unkown.
  • Chile E-charettes are legal for sale but are regulated as medicinal products.[221]
  • Colombia E-cigarettes are legal to purchase but are regulated as tobacco products.[222] Their use in in public places is also banned.[222]
  • Costa Rica The sale of e-cigarettes is legal but there are restrictions such as a minimum age to purchase and where they are allowed to be sold.[223] E-cigarette use is banned in all indoor public areas.[223]
  • Cuba Unknown.
  • Dominica Unknown.
  • Dominican Republic There is no existing law that regulates e-cigarettes.[224]
  • Ecuador The sale of e-cigarettes is not permitted to anyone under the age of 18.[225] Advertising is restricted to places where only adults are there Prodcuts that so not contain nicotine are not subject to regulations.[225]
  • El Salvador No law exists that regulate e-cigarettes.[226] The sale of e-cigarettes is legal.[226]
  • Falkland Islands The sale of e-cigarettes is not permitted to anyone under the age of 18.[227] E-cigarette use is banned from all Health & Social Services locations.[228]
  • Grenada Unknown.
  • Guatemala No law exists that regulate e-cigarettes.[229]
  • Guyana The sale of e-cigarettes is legal but there are restrictions such as a minimum age to purchase and where they are allowed to be sold.[230]
  • Haiti Uknown.
  • Honduras E-cigarettes are regulated as tobacco derivative products.[231] The sale of e-cigarettes is not permitted to anyone under the age of 21.[231] The use of e-cigarettes in public places is banned.[231]
  • Jamaica The sale of e-cigarettes is legal but there are restrictions such as where they can be sold.[232] The use or possession of e-cigarettes in public places is banned.[232]
  • Mexico: Except for the several court decisions that allowed some retailers to sell them, the ban remains in place.[233] The import, sale, and distribution of e-cigarettes is illegal by law.[233]
  • Nicaragua Any product simulating tobacco products is banned from being sold, imported, or manufactured.[234]
  • Panama E-cigarettes are regulated as tobacco products and their sales, distribution, and importation with or without nicotine are banned.[235] The Ministry of Health cites the US FDA findings as their reasoning for the ban.[236]
  • Paraguay E-cigarettes using nicotine or synthetic nicotine are regulated as tobacco products.[237] The sale of e-cigarettes is not permitted to anyone under the age of 18.[237]
  • Peru Unkown.
  • Saint Kitts and Nevis Unknown.
  • Saint Lucia Unknown.
  • Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Unknown.
  • Trinidad and Tobago Unknown.
  • Turks and Caicos Islands Unknown.
  • Puerto Rico Nicotine cartridges with or without nicotine are legal to sell.[238] The sale of e-cigarettes is not permitted to anyone under the age of 18.[238] E-cigarette advertisements are restricted.[238] E-cigarette use is also banned where smoking is banned.[238]
  • United States Virgin Islands The sale of e-cigarettes is not permitted to anyone under the age of 18.[239] There is no law restricting e-cigarette use in places where smoking is banned.[239]
  • Uruguay E-cigarette are banned from being imported and from being sold.[240] E-cigarette use is also banned where smoking is banned.[240]
  • Venezuela In order for companies to import e-cigarettes, they are required to specify whether the product falls under the categories of medicinal, consumer goods, or tobacco derivatives.[241] If classified as a tobacco derivative, e-cigarettes are prohibited from being sold to minors, advertised, promoted, or used in enclosed public spaces or transportation, as mandated by the tobacco control law.[241] If classified as medicinal or consumer products, they must undergo thorough clinical trials similar to other nicotine replacement therapies before they can be sold, promoted, distributed, or used.[241] Currently, no e-cigarette product has been registered, leading to the illegality of their sale, promotion, and distribution, as indicated in an alert.[241]

United States

Federal regulation

Prior to 8 August 2016,[242] regulations concerning the use of e-cigarettes varied considerably across the United States, although there is more variation regarding laws limiting their use by youth than regarding multi-level regulations, such as banning their use in public places.[243] The FDA classified e-cigarettes as drug delivery devices and subject to regulation under the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FDCA) before importation and sale in the US.[244] The classification was challenged in court, and overruled in January 2010 by Federal District Court Judge Richard J. Leon, explaining that "the devices should be regulated as tobacco products rather than drug or medical products."[245]

In March 2010, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia stayed the injunction pending an appeal, during which the FDA argued the right to regulate e-cigarettes based on their previous ability to regulate nicotine replacement therapies such as nicotine gum or patches. Further, the agency argued that tobacco legislation enacted the previous year "expressly excludes from the definition of 'tobacco product' any article that is a drug, device or combination product under the FDCA, and provides that such articles shall be subject to regulation under the pre-existing FDCA provisions."[246] On 7 December 2010, the appeals court ruled against the FDA in a 3–0 unanimous decision, ruling the FDA can only regulate e-cigarettes as tobacco products, and thus cannot block their import.[247] The judges ruled that such devices would only be subject to drug legislation if they are marketed for therapeutic use – E-cigarette manufacturers had successfully proven that their products were targeted at smokers and not at those seeking to quit. The District Columbia Circuit appeals court, on 24 January 2011, declined to review the decision en banc, blocking the products from FDA regulation as medical devices.[248]

In April 2014, the FDA proposed new regulations for tobacco products, including e-cigarettes. The regulations require disclosure of ingredients used in e-cigarette liquids, proof of safety of those ingredients, and regulation of the devices used to vaporize and deliver the liquid.[249][250][251][252] The FDA proposed regulation would ban the sale of e-cigarettes with nicotine to any individual under 18 years of age.[253] In August 2014, attorneys general from over two dozen states advised the FDA to enact restrictions on e-cigarettes, including banning flavors.[254]

On 10 May 2016, the FDA published their deeming regulations in the Federal Register, which were to take effect on 8 August 2016. Vendors and companies had until two years afterward to prepare paperwork with the FDA to have their product remain on the market. Currently, there are lawsuits and amendments made in the works in Congress to change that provision. The lack of research on the risks and possible benefits has resulted in precautionary policymaking in the US "which often lacks grounding in empirical evidence and results in spatially uneven diffusion of policy".[255] The time by which applications to market regulated non-combustible tobacco product devices must be submitted for review has been extended to August 8, 2022.[256]

As of 8 August 2016, the FDA extended its regulatory power to include e-cigarettes.[242] Under this ruling the FDA will evaluate certain issues, including ingredients, product features and health risks, as well their appeal to minors and non-users.[257] E-cigarette and tobacco companies have recruited lobbyists in an effort to prevent the FDA from evaluating e-cigarette products or banning existing products already on the market.[19] The FDA rule also bans access to minors.[257] A photo ID is required to buy e-cigarettes,[258] and their sale in all-ages vending machines is not permitted.[257] The FDA in September 2016 has sent warning letters for unlawful underage sales to online retailers and retailers of e-cigarettes.[259] FDA regulations have also applied to the advertising of e-cigarettes since 2016.[260] Per FDA regulations, e-cigarettes, e-liquid, and associated products cannot be advertised as safer than other tobacco products unless they have received modified risk tobacco product (MRTP) status.[261] As of August 2018, this status has not been granted to any e-cigarette or e-liquid product.[262] Though no companies have applied for an MRTP permit for their vaping products, similar heated tobacco products have been denied MRTP status on the grounds that they are not safer than traditional cigarettes.[263]

On December 5, 2016 HUD passed a rule banning the use of tobacco products in common areas and within each home unit.[264] HUD did not include e-cigarettes in their list of prohibited tobacco products, and they will allow each public housing agency to make that decision.[264] The ban includes cigarettes, cigars, pipes and waterpipes (hookahs).[264] E-cigarettes were not included because they believe there would be no maintenance cost savings or a lowered risk of destructive fires.[264] HUD commented that there is a lack of evidence that the vapor causes any damage to the units.[264]

Beginning in May 2018, the FDA began to crack down on e-liquid brands whose packaging resembles food or beverage products.[265][266] FDA is particularly concerned about e-liquids whose packaging resembles that of candy, juice boxes, and other products intended to appeal to children, because of concern that children will mistakenly drink the e-liquid and die of nicotine poisoning.[267] Nicotine is especially toxic to young children, and a 60 ml bottle of e-liquid with 11 mg/ml nicotine concentration, the average e-liquid bottle in the U.S.,[268] is likely to kill a child of age 4 or younger.[267][269] As such, the FDA has charged e-liquid products with branding that resembles food, candy, or beverage items as being misbranded and using false advertising, which is illegal under the Tobacco Control Act of 2009 (specifically sections 903(a)(1) and 903(a)(7)(A) of the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, 21 U.S.C. § 387c).[267]

In September 2018, the FDA has further strengthened its Youth Tobacco Prevention Plan by targeting the e-cigarette industry with fines for retailers and manufactures that are illegally selling to youth.[270] FDA commissioner Scott Gottlieb, M.D., has indicated that this is a first step in a new and significant enforcement strategy against the e-cigarette industry.[270] In November 2018, the FDA announced new steps to curb youth vaping while still ensuring the adults who would benefit from e-cigarettes still had access to a healthier nicotine delivery system.[271] Sales of flavored tobacco products will be limited to adult only stores and online vendors with the exception of tobacco, mint or menthol e-cigarettes that will remain for sales wherever combustible cigarettes are sold (convenience stores).[271] If the FDA does not see a change in the illegal youth access of menthol or minty vapes currently 20% of their use, they will move to adjust their regulations.[271] The decision to allow menthol vapes was to ensure that an alternative was present should an adult go to purchase menthol cigarettes.[271] The age verification of online vendors for vape products will see an increased level of security.[271]

President Donald Trump announces a plan to remove flavored e-cigarette products from the market on September 11, 2019, in the Oval Office of the White House.
President Donald Trump announces a plan to remove flavored e-cigarette products from the market on September 11, 2019, in the Oval Office of the White House.[272]

The FDA rule also bans access to minors.[18] A photo ID is now required to buy e-cigarettes,[273] and their sale in all-ages vending machines is not permitted in the US.[18] As of August 2017, regulatory compliance deadlines relating to premarket review requirements for most e-cigarette and e-liquid products have been extended from November 2017 to August 8, 2022,[274][275] which attracted a lawsuit filed by the American Heart Association, American Academy of Pediatrics, the Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids, and other plaintiffs.[276] In May 2016 the FDA used its authority under the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act to deem e-cigarette devices and e-liquids to be tobacco products, which meant it intended to regulate the marketing, labelling, and manufacture of devices and liquids; vape shops that mix e-liquids or make or modify devices were considered manufacturing sites that needed to register with FDA and comply with good manufacturing practice regulation.[277]

In 2016 the US Department of Transportation banned the use of e-cigarettes on commercial flights.[278] This regulation applies to all flights to and from the US.[278] On December 20, 2019, the minimum age for sale of any tobacco product including e-cigarettes went from 18 to 21 years in the US.[22] This law is not applicable to nicotine-free e-liquids or to the devices themselves.[279] The US Congress passed a federal law which went into effect on April 14, 2022, clarifying the US FDA's authority to regulate tobacco products containing nicotine from any source, including non-tobacco nicotine or synthetic nicotine.[280]

In the midst of an outbreak of lung illness in the US linked to vaping products, Donald Trump said in September 2019 that his administration has a plan to ban e-cigarette liquid flavors.[281] As of January 2020, the FDA bans companies from the manufacture, distribution, and sale of fruit or mint cartridge-based e-cigarettes which includes a cartridge or pod that holds liquid that is to be aerosolized when the product is used.[282] The ban does not include tobacco or menthol cartridge-based e-cigarettes.[282] The ban also did not include disposable vaping device.[283]

State regulation

A no smoking or vaping sign from the US.
A no smoking or vaping sign from the US

In the United States, different measures have been taken to regulate e-cigarettes. In March 2010, New Jersey became the first state to implement e-cigarette Minimum Legal Sale Age Law (MLSA)[284] and comprehensive indoor use ban in workplaces, restaurants, and bars. That same year, Minnesota imposed the first e-cigarette tax in the country.[285] Six years later, the Food and Drug Administration's Center for Tobacco Products (FDA-CTP)[286] deemed e-cigarettes to be tobacco products. In May 2016, the FDA-CTP made the following requirements: e-cigarettes are required to carry a warning label,[287] a national e-cigarette MLSA of 18 was put in place, and the FDA-CTP must eventually approve all e-cigarette products through a pre-market application process.

Effective 8 August 2016, all US states will follow the same, uniform federal guidelines.[242] With an absence of federal regulations, many states and cities had adopted their own e-cigarette regulations, most commonly to prohibit sales to minors, including Maryland, Kentucky, Minnesota, New Jersey, New Hampshire, Tennessee, Utah, Wisconsin, and Colorado. Other states are considering similar legislation.[288] Several US cities and states have enacted laws that increased the legal age to purchase e-cigarettes to age 21.[289] As of 2014, some states in the US permit e-cigarettes to be taxed as tobacco products, and some state and regional governments in the US had extended their indoor smoking bans to include e-cigarettes.[20] In 2015, at least 48 states and 2 territories had banned e-cigarette sales to minors.[290]

Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger vetoed a bill that would regulate the sale of e-cigarettes within the state on grounds that "if adults want to purchase and consume these products with an understanding of the associated health risks, they should be able to do so."[291]

A review of regulations in 40 U.S. states found that how a law defines e-cigarettes is critical, with some definitions allowing e-cigarettes to avoid smoke-free laws, taxation, and restrictions on sales and marketing.[292] Fewer policies have been created to restrict vaping indoors than with cigarette smoking.[293]

Many local and state jurisdictions have recently begun enacting laws that prohibit e-cigarette usage everywhere that smoking is banned, although some state laws with comprehensive smoke-free laws will still allow for vaping to be permitted in bars and restaurants while prohibiting e-cigarettes in other indoor places.[294] As of August 2016, the United States Navy is considering banning e-cigarettes.[295] A 2017 report stated "As of 2 October 2015, five US states and over 400 counties have implemented some form of restriction of ECIG use indoors. International policies are more varied with certain restrictions for ECIG use in UK airports and trains and reports of complete ECIG bans in indoor public places for Malta, Belgium and Spain".[293] San Francisco banned the sale of flavored e-liquids in 2018.[296] They are the first city in the US to enact such a ban.[296] Since 2008, Amtrak has banned smoking and vaping on trains and in stations.[297] In March 2014, the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority revised its rules to ban vaping.[297]

In November 2018, the FDA required e-cigarette manufacturers not to sell e-cigarette products online without strict age verification. It was also requested e-cigarette suppliers to end bulk purchasing of e-cigarettes and to remove flavored e-cigarettes from stores. In January 2020, the city of San Francisco banned e-cigarettes.[298] By January 2020, twenty states had implemented e-cigarettes taxes, sixteen had comprehensively banned indoor use of the product, and eight had imposed temporary restrictions on the sale of all e-cigarettes or flavored e-cigarettes.[citation needed] In 2020, seven states passed permanent restrictions on flavored e-cigarettes.[299]

Regulation recommendations

A 2021 review states that with the ever-increasing usage of e-cigarettes by adolescents (10 and 19 years), it is very important that e-cigarettes be incorporated into the current tobacco-free laws and ordinances.[300] A 2021 review concluded that e-cigarettes need stronger regulations to prevent youth access and use.[300] According to a 2021 review, the composition of e-liquids requires stricter regulation, as they can be easily bought online and many incidences of mislabelling have been detected, which can seriously affect consumers' health.[301] In order to head off young people from migrating from e-cigarettes to classical cigarettes and to cut down on the possible public health dilemma from e-cigarette use, new e-cigarette regulations would need to be passed and anti-e-cigarette campaigns would need to be implemented.[302]

References

  1. Bush, Andrew; Ferkol, Thomas; Valiulis, Algirdas; Mazur, Artur; Chkhaidze, Ivane; Maglakelidze, Tamaz; Sargsyan, Sergey; Boyajyan, Gevorg; Cirstea, Olga; Doan, Svitlana; Katilov, Oleksandr; Pokhylko, Valeriy; Dubey, Leonid; Poluziorovienė, Edita; Prokopčiuk, Nina; Taminskienė, Vaida; Valiulis, Arūnas (8 February 2021). "Unfriendly Fire: How the Tobacco Industry is Destroying the Future of Our Children". Acta medica Lituanica. 28 (1): 6–18. doi:10.15388/Amed.2020.28.1.6. PMC 8311841. PMID 34393624. This article incorporates text by Andrew Bush, Thomas Ferkol, Algirdas Valiulis, Artur Mazur, Ivane Chkhaidze, Tamaz Maglakelidze, Sergey Sargsyan, Gevorg Boyajyan, Olga Cirstea, Svitlana Doan, Oleksandr Katilov, Valeriy Pokhylko, Leonid Dubey, Edita Poluziorovienė, Nina Prokopčiuk, Vaida Taminskienė, Arūnas Valiulis available under the CC BY 4.0 license.
  2. Etter, J. F.; Bullen, C.; Flouris, A. D.; Laugesen, M.; Eissenberg, T. (May 2011). "Electronic nicotine delivery systems: a research agenda". Tobacco Control. 20 (3): 243–8. doi:10.1136/tc.2010.042168. PMC 3215262. PMID 21415064.
  3. Tabuchi, Takahiro; Gallus, Silvano; Shinozaki, Tomohiro; Nakaya, Tomoki; Kunugita, Naoki; Colwell, Brian (2018). "Heat-not-burn tobacco product use in Japan: its prevalence, predictors and perceived symptoms from exposure to secondhand heat-not-burn tobacco aerosol". Tobacco Control. 27 (e1): e25–e33. doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2017-053947. ISSN 0964-4563. PMC 6073918. PMID 29248896.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Beard, Emma; Shahab, Lion; Cummings, Damian M.; Michie, Susan; West, Robert (2016). "New Pharmacological Agents to Aid Smoking Cessation and Tobacco Harm Reduction: What Has Been Investigated, and What Is in the Pipeline?" (PDF). CNS Drugs. 30 (10): 951–83. doi:10.1007/s40263-016-0362-3. ISSN 1172-7047. PMID 27421270. S2CID 40411008.
  5. 5.0 5.1 McNeill, A; Brose, LS; Calder, R; Bauld, L; Robson, D (February 2018). "Evidence review of e-cigarettes and heated tobacco products 2018" (PDF). Public Health England.
  6. Page, Barnaby (5 March 2015). "World's law-makers favour basing e-cig rules on tobacco". ECigIntelligence. Tamarind Media Limited.
  7. Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kabir, Ehsanul; Jahan, Shamin Ara (2016). "Review of electronic cigarettes as tobacco cigarette substitutes: their potential human health impact". Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part C. 34 (4): 262–275. doi:10.1080/10590501.2016.1236604. ISSN 1059-0501. PMID 27635466. S2CID 42660975.
  8. Lempert, Lauren K; Grana, Rachel; Glantz, Stanton A (2016). "The importance of product definitions in US e-cigarette laws and regulations". Tobacco Control. 25 (e1): e44–e51. doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2014-051913. ISSN 0964-4563. PMC 4466213. PMID 25512432.
  9. Kim, Jinyung; Lee, Serim; Chun, JongSerl (14 September 2022). "An International Systematic Review of Prevalence, Risk, and Protective Factors Associated with Young People's E-Cigarette Use". International journal of environmental research and public health. MDPI AG. 19 (18): 11570. doi:10.3390/ijerph191811570. ISSN 1660-4601. PMC 9517489. PMID 36141845. {{cite journal}}: Check |pmc= value (help) This article incorporates text by Jinyung Kim, Serim Lee, and JongSerl Chun available under the CC BY 4.0 license.
  10. Relita Mendonca, Rishal; Narayanan, V. Anoop; Sandeep, D.S.; Ruman, Aysha; Charyulu, R. Narayana (2019). "Regulating E-cigarettes in India: A conundrum for the global giant in tobacco production". Indian Journal of Tuberculosis. 66 (2): 288–293. doi:10.1016/j.ijtb.2019.02.014. ISSN 0019-5707. PMID 31151498.
  11. Robertson, Adi (18 September 2019). "India bans e-cigarette sales and says there's an 'epidemic' of kids vaping". The Verge.
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 McFaull, Steven R.; Do, Minh T.; Champagne, André; Bang, Felix (2020). "Injuries and poisonings associated with e-cigarettes and vaping substances, electronic Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program, 2011–2019". Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada. 40 (7/8): 250–254. doi:10.24095/hpcdp.40.7/8.05. ISSN 2368-738X. PMC 7450903. PMID 32667882.
  13. 13.0 13.1 "European court: Tougher rules on electronic cigarettes". Business Insider. Associated Press. 4 May 2016. Archived from the original on 2 June 2019. Retrieved 4 June 2019.
  14. 14.0 14.1 Washtell, Francesca (5 May 2016). "EU Tobacco Products Directive chokes off the UK's e-cigarette and vaping market". City A.M.
  15. 15.0 15.1 Nagesh, Ashitha (10 July 2013). "Anger over tobacco lobbyists as Europe nears new rules on e-cigarettes". Euronews.
  16. 16.0 16.1 "The Tobacco Products and Nicotine Inhaling Products (Amendment) (EU Exit) Regulations 2020". legislation.gov.uk.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  17. "FDA's New Regulations for E-Cigarettes, Cigars, and All Other Tobacco Products". United States Food and Drug Administration. 17 August 2017.
  18. 18.0 18.1 18.2 "The Facts on the FDA's New Tobacco Rule". United States Food and Drug Administration. 2 May 2017.
  19. 19.0 19.1 Lipton, Eric (2 September 2016). "A Lobbyist Wrote the Bill. Will the Tobacco Industry Win Its E-Cigarette Fight?". The New York Times.
  20. 20.0 20.1 Crowley, Ryan A. (2015). "Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems: Executive Summary of a Policy Position Paper From the American College of Physicians". Annals of Internal Medicine. 162 (8): 583–4. doi:10.7326/M14-2481. ISSN 0003-4819. PMID 25894027.
  21. Glantz, Stanton A.; Bareham, David W. (January 2018). "E-Cigarettes: Use, Effects on Smoking, Risks, and Policy Implications". Annual Review of Public Health. 39 (1): 215–235. doi:10.1146/annurev-publhealth-040617-013757. ISSN 0163-7525. PMC 6251310. PMID 29323609. This article incorporates text by Stanton A. Glantz and David W. Bareham available under the CC BY 4.0 license.
  22. 22.0 22.1 "Newly Signed Legislation Raises Federal Minimum Age of Sale of Tobacco Products to 21". United States Food and Drug Administration. 15 January 2020.Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  23. Cervellin, Gianfranco; Borghi, Loris; Mattiuzzi, Camilla; Meschi, Tiziana; Favaloro, Emmanuel; Lippi, Giuseppe (2013). "E-Cigarettes and Cardiovascular Risk: Beyond Science and Mysticism". Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis. 40 (1): 060–065. doi:10.1055/s-0033-1363468. ISSN 0094-6176. PMID 24343348.
  24. Maloney, Erin K.; Cappella, Joseph N. (2015). "Does Vaping in E-Cigarette Advertisements Affect Tobacco Smoking Urge, Intentions, and Perceptions in Daily, Intermittent, and Former Smokers?". Health Communication. 31 (1): 1–10. doi:10.1080/10410236.2014.993496. ISSN 1041-0236. PMID 25758192. S2CID 31328176.
  25. 25.0 25.1 Bekki, Kanae; Uchiyama, Shigehisa; Ohta, Kazushi; Inaba, Yohei; Nakagome, Hideki; Kunugita, Naoki (2014). "Carbonyl Compounds Generated from Electronic Cigarettes". International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 11 (11): 11192–11200. doi:10.3390/ijerph111111192. ISSN 1660-4601. PMC 4245608. PMID 25353061. This article incorporates text by Kanae Bekki, Shigehisa Uchiyama, Kazushi Ohta, Yohei Inaba, Hideki Nakagome and Naoki Kunugita available under the CC BY 4.0 license.
  26. Saitta, D; Ferro, GA; Polosa, R (Mar 2014). "Achieving appropriate regulations for electronic cigarettes". Therapeutic Advances in Chronic Disease. 5 (2): 50–61. doi:10.1177/2040622314521271. PMC 3926346. PMID 24587890.
  27. Thirión-Romero, Ireri; Pérez-Padilla, Rogelio; Zabert, Gustavo; Barrientos-Gutiérrez, Inti (2019). "Respiratory Impact of Electronic Cigarettes and Low-Risk Tobacco". Revista de investigación Clínica. 71 (1): 17–27. doi:10.24875/RIC.18002616. ISSN 0034-8376. PMID 30810544. S2CID 73511138.
  28. 28.0 28.1 Reiter, Anna; Hébert-Losier, Andréa; Mylocopos, Genevieve; Filion, Kristian B.; Windle, Sarah B.; O'Loughlin, Jennifer L.; Grad, Roland; Eisenberg, Mark J. (January 2024). "Regulatory Strategies for Preventing and Reducing Nicotine Vaping Among Youth: A Systematic Review". American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 66 (1): 169–181. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2023.08.002. PMID 37553038.
  29. Jane Ling, Miaw Yn; Abdul Halim, Ahmad Farid Nazmi; Ahmad, Dzulfitree; Ahmad, Norfazilah; Safian, Nazarudin; Mohammed Nawi, Azmawati (22 February 2023). "Prevalence and Associated Factors of E-Cigarette Use among Adolescents in Southeast Asia: A Systematic Review". International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 20 (5): 3883. doi:10.3390/ijerph20053883. PMC 10001692. PMID 36900893. {{cite journal}}: Check |pmc= value (help) This article incorporates text by Miaw Yn Jane Ling, Ahmad Farid Nazmi Abdul Halim, Dzulfitree Ahmad, Norfazilah Ahmad, Nazarudin Safian, and Azmawati Mohammed Nawi available under the CC BY 4.0 license.
  30. 30.0 30.1 30.2 Lyzwinski, Lynnette Nathalie; Naslund, John A.; Miller, Christopher J.; Eisenberg, Mark J. (11 April 2022). "Global youth vaping and respiratory health: epidemiology, interventions, and policies". npj Primary Care Respiratory Medicine. 32 (1): 14. doi:10.1038/s41533-022-00277-9. PMC 9001701. PMID 35410990. This article incorporates text by Lynnette Nathalie Lyzwinski, John A. Naslund, Christopher J. Miller, and Mark J. Eisenberg available under the CC BY 4.0 license.
  31. "E-cigarette vaping in Algeria". GSTHR. 2 September 2022.
  32. "E-cigarette vaping in Angola". GSTHR. 2 September 2023.
  33. "E-cigarette vaping in Angola". GSTHR. 2 September 2022.
  34. 34.0 34.1 {cite web|title=Tobacco Control Act 2021|url=https://assets.tobaccocontrollaws.org/uploads/legislation/Botswana/Botswana-TC-Act-2021-national.pdf%7Cpublisher=Parliament of Botswana|date=2021}}
  35. "E-cigarette vaping in Burundi". GSTHR. 2 September 2022.
  36. "E-cigarette vaping in Cameroon". GSTHR. 2 September 2023. Retrieved 18 July 2023.
  37. 37.0 37.1 37.2 "Cabo Verde: strong Tobacco Control Law adopted". FCTC. 2 September 2023. Retrieved 18 July 2023.
  38. "E-cigarette vaping in Central African Republic". GSTHR. 2 September 2023. Retrieved 18 July 2023.
  39. "Main Policies - Chad". Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids. 14 September 2021. Retrieved 17 July 2023.
  40. "E-cigarette vaping in Comoros". GSTHR. 2 September 2023.
  41. "E-cigarette vaping in Democratic Republic of the Congo". GSTHR. 2 September 2022.
  42. "E-cigarette vaping in Djibouti". GSTHR. 2 September 2023. Retrieved 18 July 2023.
  43. 43.0 43.1 "Countries/Jurisdictions - Egypt". Institute for Global Tobacco Control. December 2020. Retrieved 16 July 2023.
  44. "E-cigarette vaping in Equatorial Guinea". GSTHR. 2 September 2022.
  45. "E-cigarette vaping in Eritrea". GSTHR. 2 September 2022.
  46. "E-cigarette vaping in Eswatini". GSTHR. 2 September 2022.
  47. "E-cigarette vaping in Gabon". GSTHR. 2 September 2022.
  48. 48.0 48.1 "Ghana Outlaws Vape Sales and Promotion". Tobacco Reporter. 9 July 2023.
  49. "E-cigarette vaping in Guinea-Bissau". GSTHR. 2 September 2022.
  50. "E-cigarette vaping in Lesotho". GSTHR. 2 September 2022.
  51. "E-cigarette vaping in Liberia". GSTHR. 2 September 2023. Retrieved 18 July 2023.
  52. "E-cigarette vaping in Libya". GSTHR. 2 September 2022.
  53. "E-cigarette vaping in Malawi". GSTHR. 2 September 2022.
  54. "E-cigarette vaping in Mauritania". GSTHR. 2 September 2023. Retrieved 18 July 2023.
  55. 55.0 55.1 "Countries/Jurisdictions - Egypt". Institute for Global Tobacco Control. June 2022.
  56. "E-cigarette vaping in Mozambique". GSTHR. 2 September 2022.
  57. "E-cigarette vaping in Namibia". GSTHR. 2 September 2022.
  58. "E-cigarette vaping in Niger". GSTHR. 2 September 2022.
  59. "Main Policies - Nigeria". Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids. 2 September 2022.
  60. "E-cigarette vaping in Democratic Republic of Congo". GSTHR. 2 September 2022.
  61. "E-cigarette vaping in Rwanda". GSTHR. 2 September 2022.
  62. "E-cigarette vaping in Somalia". GSTHR. 2 September 2022.
  63. "Countries/Jurisdictions - South Africa". Institute for Global Tobacco Control. December 2020. Retrieved 16 July 2023.
  64. "E-cigarette vaping in Somalia". GSTHR. 2 September 2022.
  65. "Countries/Jurisdictions - Sudan". Institute for Global Tobacco Control. December 2020.
  66. "E-cigarette vaping in Tanzania". GSTHR. 2 September 2022.
  67. "Tanzania Plans to Ban Shisha and E-Cigarettes". 2FIRSTS. 25 June 2023.
  68. 68.0 68.1 "Countries/Jurisdictions - Togo". Institute for Global Tobacco Control. November 2020.
  69. "E-cigarette vaping in Tunisia". GSTHR. 2 September 2022.
  70. "Countries/Jurisdictions - Uganda". Institute for Global Tobacco Controlyear=2023.
  71. "E-cigarette vaping in Zambia". GSTHR. 2 September 2023. Retrieved 18 July 2023.
  72. "E-cigarette vaping in Zimbabwe". GSTHR. 2 September 2022.
  73. "Ինչ եղավ, երբ էլեկտրոնային սիգարետները փորձարկեցին մկների վրա" (text) (in հայերեն). 168hours. 1 March 2015. Retrieved 20 June 2016.
  74. "Bahrain Customs Duty Free Allowances". Archived from the original on 2020-05-06. Retrieved 2020-04-22.
  75. Gulf Daily News - Vapers outrage over 100 per cent tax on e-cigarette liquids
  76. Correspondent, Senior; bdnews24.com. "Bangladesh mulling e-cigarette ban amid growing health concerns". bdnews24.com. Retrieved 2019-10-11.
  77. 77.0 77.1 "国家烟草专卖局关于发布《电子烟管理办法》的公告". 国家烟草专卖局. 11 March 2022. Archived from the original on 2022-03-13.
  78. Zhang, Qing; Wen, Cai (15 May 2023). "The risk profile of electronic nicotine delivery systems, compared to traditional cigarettes, on oral disease: a review". Frontiers in Public Health. 11. doi:10.3389/fpubh.2023.1146949. PMC 10226679. PMID 37255760. {{cite journal}}: Check |pmc= value (help) This article incorporates text by Qing Zhang and Cai Wen available under the CC BY 4.0 license.
  79. 79.0 79.1 "Tobacco Control Legislation". Tobacco and Alcohol Control Office Department of Health. 30 April 2022.
  80. Liang, Ginnie (2022-06-10). "Lawmakers pass bill to ban e-cigarette imports & exports". The Macau Post Daily. Retrieved 2023-11-05.
  81. Rinkoo, ArvindVashishta; Kaur, Jagdish (2017). "Getting real with the upcoming challenge of electronic nicotine delivery systems: The way forward for the South-East Asia region". Indian Journal of Public Health. 61 (5): S7–S11. doi:10.4103/ijph.IJPH_240_17. ISSN 0019-557X. PMID 28928312.
  82. "Govt Approves E-Cigarettes Ban, Announces Bonus for Railways Staff". The Quint. 2019-09-18. Retrieved 2019-09-18.
  83. "Showcase Delhi -No More E-Cigarettes To Be Sold In India. Government Bans E-smoke consumption, 2019 To Bring An End To Vaping Culture". Archived from the original on 2020-01-10. Retrieved 2019-09-18.
  84. 84.0 84.1 Thacker, Teena (2 July 2019). "Calling e-cigarettes drugs, Centre all set to ban them in India". livemint. Retrieved 3 July 2019.
  85. "Minutes of meeting held under the Chairmanship of Joint Secretary (SG)MOHFW Electronics Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS) (commonly known as E-Cigarettes) on 10 July 2013 at 2nd Floor committee Room NO.249 A wing, Nirman Bhawan, New Delhi" (PDF). Punjab National Rural Health Mission. 10 July 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 September 2017. Retrieved 25 May 2016.
  86. Jain, Nitin (15 April 2016). "E-cigarette seller gets 3-year jail in Mohali". Tribune News Service. Retrieved 11 August 2016.
  87. "Govt likely to stub out 'toxic' e-cigarettes - Times of India". The Times of India. August 2017.
  88. "Government to impose 57 percent e-cigarette tax". The Jakarta Post.
  89. "Indonesia to impose excise tax on liquids for e-cigarettes". Reuters. 4 June 2018.
  90. "PERATURAN MENTER! KEUANGAN REPUBLIK INDONESIA NOMOR 146/PMK.010/2017 TENTANG TARIF CUKAI HASIL TEMBAKAU" (PDF).
  91. "Iran Details | Tobacco Control Laws".
  92. "Coming soon: Restrictions on e-cigarettes". ynet. 2013-09-16.
  93. 93.0 93.1 Tabuchi, Takahiro; Kiyohara, Kosuke; Hoshino, Takahiro; Bekki, Kanae; Inaba, Yohei; Kunugita, Naoki (2016). "Awareness and use of electronic cigarettes and heat-not-burn tobacco products in Japan". Addiction. 111 (4): 706–713. doi:10.1111/add.13231. ISSN 0965-2140. PMID 26566956.
  94. "Kuwait E-Cigarettes Regulations Report 2021: Insights into Current and Future Regulations - ResearchAndMarkets.com". Morningstar, Inc. 20 May 2022.
  95. 95.0 95.1 "Malaysia's Fatwa Council declares electronic cigarettes as 'haram' or forbidden". The Straits Times. December 22, 2015. Retrieved 2 August 2018.
  96. "Vaping fatwa not binding on Malaysian states". Tobacco Reporter. January 11, 2016. Retrieved 6 August 2018.
  97. Whitehead, Richard (10 January 2018). "Malaysian vape industry emerges from under a cloud to embrace prospect of regulation". Salaam - سلام. Retrieved 6 August 2018.
  98. "35 NGO Berganding Bahu Tubuhkan Petisyen 'Selamatkan Anak-Anak Malaysia' Dari Pengaruh Vape (in Malay)". Siakap Keli. July 28, 2019. Retrieved 1 December 2019.
  99. 99.0 99.1 "Electronic Cigarettes: Ambiguity and Controversies of Usage" (PDF). Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan. 8 May 2013. Retrieved 28 October 2013.
  100. https://www.who.int/tobacco/surveillance/policy/country_profile/pse.pdf?ua=1[dead link]
  101. "Duterte formalizes ban on public vaping, sale of unregistered e-cigarettes". GMA News Online. February 28, 2020.
  102. Gita-Carlos, Ruth Abbey (July 26, 2022). "Vape bill lapses into law". Philippine News Agency.
  103. Flores, Helen (July 27, 2022). "Vape bill lapses into law". The Philippine Star.
  104. "Republic Act No. 11900" (PDF). Senate of the Philippines. Retrieved September 6, 2022.
  105. "Ban on e-cigarette sales". Gulf News. 24 February 2016. Retrieved 6 August 2018.
  106. "السجائر الإلكترونية". مركز معلومات الجمارك (in العربية). الجمارك السعودية. Retrieved 12 November 2018.
  107. 107.0 107.1 "The Executive Regulations of Anti-Smoking Law issued by Royal Decree No. (M/56), dated 28/07/1436H" (PDF). Saudi Arabia Ministry of Health.
  108. "Prohibition on imitation tobacco products". hsa.gov.sg. 8 May 2013. Retrieved 28 October 2013.
  109. Heng, Janice (20 July 2010). "Ban on new tobacco products". The Straits Times. Archived from the original on 29 November 2010. Retrieved 13 January 2011.
  110. "전자담배 즐기는 아들". Seoul.co.kr. 2 April 2011. Retrieved 29 February 2012.
  111. "Passenger Clearance". 30 August 2018. Retrieved 28 April 2019.
  112. Bangprapa, Mongkol (21 August 2019). "PM to keep e-cigs illegal". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 21 August 2019.
  113. "E-cigarettes to be allowed in UAE in April". Arabian Business. 18 February 2019.
  114. Parker, Helen; Lake, Chloe (19 January 2009). "E-cigarettes being sold online". News.com.au. Archived from the original on 3 September 2012. Retrieved 19 January 2009.
  115. Therapeutic Goods Administration (15 October 2008). "National Drugs and Poisons Schedule Committee -record of reasons of meeting 54" (PDF). Australian Government Department of_Health and Ageing Therapeutic Goods Administration: NDPSC document (chapter 12.1.3 at p.126-144). Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 June 2009. Retrieved 13 May 2009.
  116. 116.0 116.1 "Legal status of electronic cigarettes in Australia" (PDF). Quit Victoria. Quit Vitoria. September 2015.
  117. Fraser, Doug; Weier, Megan; Keane, Helen; Gartner, Coral (2015). "Vapers' perspectives on electronic cigarette regulation in Australia". International Journal of Drug Policy. 26 (6): 589–594. doi:10.1016/j.drugpo.2015.01.019. ISSN 0955-3959. PMID 25724266.
  118. 118.0 118.1 "Electronic cigarettes". Therapeutic Goods Administration. 30 March 2015. pp. 1–7.
  119. Stark, Jill (12 December 2010). "Banned e-cigarettes may be a health hazard, but buying them's a wheeze". The Age. Australia. Retrieved 17 December 2010.
  120. comlaw.gov.au "Australian Government ComLaw"
  121. "Electronic cigarettes:The truth behind the smoke and mirrors". smh.com.au. Retrieved 26 October 2015.
  122. 122.0 122.1 "Countries/Jurisdictions - Fiji". Institute for Global Tobacco Control. November 2021.
  123. "Regulation of vaping and smokeless tobacco products". Ministry of Health. 2021.
  124. 124.0 124.1 124.2 124.3 "About the Smokefree Environments and Regulated Products (Vaping) Amendment Act". Ministry of Health. 2021.
  125. Riwu Bara, Roy Pefi; McCausland, Kahlia; Swanson, Maurice; Scott, Lucy; Jancey, Jonine (February 2023). ""They're sleek, stylish and sexy:" selling e-cigarettes online". Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health. 47 (1): 100013. doi:10.1016/j.anzjph.2022.100013. PMID 36641959.
  126. 126.0 126.1 "Countries/Jurisdictions - Palau". Institute for Global Tobacco Control. December 2020. Retrieved 16 July 2023.
  127. 127.0 127.1 "Countries/Jurisdictions - Papua New Guinea". Institute for Global Tobacco Control. November 2021.
  128. "Revision of the Tobacco Products Directive". European Commission. Retrieved 20 November 2013.
  129. "EU plans tougher tobacco restrictions on e-cigarettes". BBC News. 7 October 2013. Retrieved 7 October 2013.
  130. "Proposal on the approximation of the laws, regulations and administrative provisions of the Member States concerning the manufacture, presentation and sale of tobacco and related products" (PDF). 19 December 2012. Retrieved 7 October 2013.
  131. "Tobacco Or Medicinal Product? Europe Divided Over E-Cigarettes". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 13 October 2013. Retrieved 13 October 2013.
  132. Gray, Eliza (27 February 2014). "Europe Sets New Rules for E-Cigs While the U.S. Drags Its Feet". Time.
  133. "Questions & Answers: New rules for tobacco products". European Commission. 26 February 2014.
  134. Meikle, James (1 October 2015). "UK e-cigarette firm fights EU vaping laws in European court". The Guardian. Retrieved 21 October 2015.
  135. Higgins, Andrew (9 November 2013). "Aided by Army of 'Vapers', E-Cigarette Industry Woos and Wins Europe". The New York Times. Retrieved 22 November 2014.
  136. Kitamura, Makiko (19 February 2014). "Glaxo Memo Shows Drug Industry Lobbying on E-Cigarettes". Bloomberg News. Retrieved 22 November 2014.
  137. Zainol Abidin, Najihah; Zainal Abidin, Emilia; Zulkifli, Aziemah; Karuppiah, Karmegam; Syed Ismail, Sharifah Norkhadijah; Amer Nordin, Amer Siddiq (2017). "Electronic cigarettes and indoor air quality: a review of studies using human volunteers" (PDF). Reviews on Environmental Health. 32 (3): 235–244. doi:10.1515/reveh-2016-0059. ISSN 2191-0308. PMID 28107173. S2CID 6885414.
  138. "What the RCP thinks about tobacco". UK: Royal College of Physicians. 1 February 2018. pp. 1–2.
  139. Kirkham, Chris; Kirton, David (6 December 2023). "China e-cigarette titan behind 'Elf Bar' floods the US with illegal vapes". Reuters.
  140. "Abgrenzungsbeirat gemäß § 49a AMG BMGFJ-Information betreffend elektrisch betriebene Nikotininhalatoren, insbesondere RUYAN" (PDF). Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety. 18 April 2007. Archived from the original (PDF 29 KB) on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 21 September 2011.
  141. "La cigarette électronique bientôt complètement légale en Belgique" (text) (in français). LE SOIR. 26 January 2016. Retrieved 20 June 2016.
  142. "LAW ON THE BAN ON THE SALE AND CONSUMPTION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS TO PERSONS BELOW 18 YEARS OF AGE" (text). tobaccocontrollaws.org. 21 May 2004. Retrieved 20 June 2016.
  143. Erbach, Gregor (27 March 2013). "Electronic cigarettes" (PDF). Retrieved 6 October 2013.
  144. "Zabranjeno pušenje: i elektronska cigareta uskoro na udaru zakona!" (text) (in hrvatski). vijesti.rtl.hr. 21 May 2004. Retrieved 1 September 2015.
  145. 145.0 145.1 "Zákon o opatreních k ochrane pred škodami pusobenými tabákovými výrobky, alkoholem a jinými návykovými látkami". Czech Law. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
  146. 146.0 146.1 146.2 146.3 Tiessen; et al. (2010). "Assessing the Impacts of Revising the Tobacco Products Directive" (PDF). RAND Europe commission by the European Commission Health and Consumer Director. pp. 118–120.
  147. Danish Medicines Agency (9 March 2009). "Classification of electronic cigarettes". Danish Medicines Agency. Retrieved 22 February 2010.
  148. "DANSKE REGLER OMKRING E-CIGARETTER MED NIKOTIN". www.ecigaretguiden.dk (in dansk). 1 November 2015. Retrieved 28 May 2016.
  149. "Summary of legal rulings and case precedents" (PDF). Electronic Cigarette Industry Trade Association. January 2013. Retrieved 30 December 2014.
  150. "Tupakan esilläpitokielto voimaan – Sähkötupakan mainonta lainvastaista". Valvira.fi. Retrieved 29 February 2012.
  151. Helsingin Sanomat: "Sähkötupakan myynti kiellettiin Suomessa" Archived 2011-05-09 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 6 March 2011.
  152. Press release Finnish Customs, 26 November 2010. Retrieved 6 March 2011.
  153. "LOI n° 2014-344 du 17 mars 2014 relative à la consommation Article 36". www.legifrance.gouv.fr (in français). Légifrance, le service public de l'accès au droit. 17 March 2014. Retrieved 28 May 2016.
  154. https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/affichTexte.do?cidTexte=JORFTEXT000034492950&dateTexte=&categorieLien=id [bare URL]
  155. Morrison, Thea (1 May 2018). "New Smoking Regulations Take Effect Today". Georgia Today.
  156. "Revision of the Tobacco Products Directive - Public Health - European Commission". Public Health. 2016-11-25. Retrieved 2017-02-09.
  157. 157.0 157.1 "Protection of Young Persons Act § 10" (PDF). www.bmfsfj.de. Bundesministerium für Familie, Senioren, Frauen und Jugend. 3 March 2016. Retrieved 28 May 2016.
  158. "LAW NUMBER 3730 Protection of minors from tobacco and alcoholic beverages and other provisions." (PDF). www.tobaccocontrollaws.org. Tobacco Free Kids. 23 December 2008. Retrieved 28 May 2016.
  159. 159.0 159.1 Kft, Wolters Kluwer. "421/2016. (XII. 14.) Korm. rendelet - 1.oldal - Hatályos Jogszabályok Gyűjteménye". Retrieved 3 August 2018.
  160. "Rafrænar sígarettur eru hættulegar". www.ruv.is (in íslenska). Retrieved 21 June 2016.
  161. "Vaping and E-Cigarettes Under Ireland's Smoking Ban". goireland.about.com. 3 April 2016. Retrieved 21 June 2016.
  162. "Ministero della salutte – ordinanca 176". 26 June 2013.
  163. "Sigarette elettroniche, stop ai minori: sale a 18 anni il limite per la vendita". www.repubblica.it (in italiano). Repubblica.it. 2013-04-02. Retrieved 28 May 2016.
  164. "Dispositivo dell'art. 730 Codice Penale". www.brocardi.it (in italiano). Retrieved 28 May 2016.
  165. 165.0 165.1 "E-Cigarette Committee- Where is it legal?". eexplor. Retrieved 18 November 2013.
  166. "Kinder- und Jugendgesetz (KJG) Art. 69 Alkoholhaltige Getränke und Tabakwaren". www.gesetze.li (in Deutsch). 2008-12-10. Retrieved 11 June 2016.
  167. "Accueil – JWELL STORE LUXEMBOURG". www.jwell-luxembourg.lu (in français). Retrieved 2018-07-14.
  168. "Luxembourg ramps up efforts to stub out smoking". Luxembourg Times. 7 July 2016. Retrieved 2018-07-14.
  169. Tobacco (Smoking Control) Act Sec. 13
  170. Products and Smoking Devices (Simulating Cigarettes or Tobacco) (Control) Regulations
  171. Zaken, Ministerie van Algemene (2015-05-27). "Regels voor de e-sigaret - Roken - Rijksoverheid.nl". www.rijksoverheid.nl (in Nederlands). Retrieved 2019-09-19.
  172. Tristan (2019-10-10). "Wetgeving, e sigaretten, reclame hoe zit dat nou?". Dampersgids (in Nederlands). Retrieved 2020-05-10.
  173. "Plain packaging voor sigaretten". ondernemersplein.kvk.nl (in Nederlands). Retrieved 2020-05-10.
  174. "Ban on flavoured e-cigarettes". business.gov.nl. Retrieved 6 December 2023.
  175. "Regulering av elektroniske sigaretter i Norge" (PDF). Helsedirektoratet Norge. 6 December 2011. Etter legemiddellovgivningen er overnevnte regler ikke til hinder for privatimport fra utlandet. Dersom produktet privatimporteres til røykeslutt, gjelder reglene i forskrift om tilvirkning og import av legemidler § 3-2. Her stilles det ulike krav avhengig av hvilket land (innenfor eller utenfor EØS) det importeres fra og hvordan (ved innreise eller forsendelse). Produktet må være lovlig ervervet og til personlig bruk
  176. "Norway bans e-cigarette advertising". Odisha Sun Times. July 26, 2015. Retrieved 3 August 2018.
  177. "Dz.U. 2016 poz. 1331". Sejm - Internetowy System Aktów Prawnych.
  178. Walków, Marcin. "Palisz e-papierosy? Od dziś grozi za to mandat". Business Insider Polska. Retrieved 8 September 2017.
  179. "GUVERNUL INTRODUCE DIN 2016 ACCIZA PE TIGARILE ELECTRONICE!". mahoarca.ro. 2015-03-23.
  180. "E-cigarette Legal Information for Russia". Vapetrotter. Archived from the original on 2018-06-16. Retrieved 2018-01-21.
  181. "Informe sobre los cigarrillos electrónicos: situación actual, evidencia disponible y regulación" (PDF). 1 July 2014.
  182. Jimenez Ruiz, CA; Solano Reina, S; de Granda Orive, JI; Signes-Costa Minaya, J; de Higes Martinez, E; Riesco Miranda, JA; Altet Gómez, N; Lorza Blasco, JJ; Barrueco Ferrero, M; de Lucas Ramos, P (August 2014). "The electronic cigarette. Official statement of the Spanish Society of Pneumology and Thoracic Surgery (SEPAR) on the efficacy, safety and regulation of electronic cigarettes". Archivos de Bronconeumologia. 50 (8): 362–7. doi:10.1016/j.arbres.2014.02.006. PMID 24684764.
  183. "Ab sofort ist Nikotin in E-Zigaretten erlaubt". 20min.ch. 27 April 2018. Retrieved 3 May 2018.
  184. "Keine Tabaksteuer für elektronische Zigarette". Neue Zürcher Zeitung. nzz.ch. 21 December 2011. Retrieved 29 February 2012.
  185. "Basbakanlik Mevzuati Gelistirme ve Yayin Genel Müdürlügü". resmigazete.gov.tr.
  186. "Law No. 6487" (PDF).
  187. "Gümrük: Elektronik Sigara ve Benzeri Cihazlar ile Bazı Tütün Mamulleri ve Tütün Mamulünü Taklit Eder Tarzda Kullanılan Mamullerin İthaline İlişkin Karar (Karar Sayısı: 2149)". www.gumruk.com.tr. Retrieved 2022-08-29.
  188. "Answer to Turkish parliamentary question" (PDF). Turkish parliament. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-08-23. Retrieved 2016-04-20.
  189. "WHO Report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic, 2015" (PDF).[dead link]
  190. 190.0 190.1 "Ukrainian Lawmakers Crack Down on Vaping". Tobacco Reporter. 2 August 2021.
  191. "Main Policies - Ukraine". Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids. 25 July 2023.
  192. 192.0 192.1 "E-cigarettes to be stubbed out for under-18s". BBC News. 26 January 2014.
  193. "Transport for London Conditions of Carriage" (PDF). tfl.gov.uk. 14 August 2015. Retrieved 28 August 2015. For safety reasons, on our buses and Underground trains and in our bus and Underground stations you must not smoke or use an electronic cigarette (‘vape’)
  194. "So where can you still vape? - BBC Newsbeat". BBC Newsbeat. 6 October 2015. Retrieved 27 September 2018.
  195. "Rules about tobacco, e-cigarettes and smoking: 1 October 2015". GOV.UK. Department of Health. 9 July 2015.
  196. "E-cigarettes can appear in TV adverts, watchdog rules". BBC News. 9 October 2014.
  197. Bell, Alex (10 November 2014). "E-cigarette firm KiK to make TV history". Manchester Evening News.
  198. Morris, Steven (9 June 2015). "Wales to introduce e-cigarette ban". The Guardian. Retrieved 26 October 2015.
  199. "What the RCP thinks about tobacco". UK: Royal College of Physicians. 2018-02-01. Retrieved 2018-05-03.
  200. "E-cigarettes: regulations for consumer products". gov.uk. Retrieved May 6, 2018.
  201. "The electronic cigarette". GBS News. 1 March 2013.
  202. "¿Qué son las guías de práctica clínica?". msal.gov.ar. March 2017.
  203. 203.0 203.1 "Tobacco Advocacy in the Caribbean" (PDF). HCC. December 2021.
  204. "Main Policies - Argentinia". Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids. 3 February 2022.
  205. 205.0 205.1 "Countries/Jurisdictions - Barbados". Institute for Global Tobacco Control. December 2020.
  206. 206.0 206.1 "Main Policies - Argentinia". Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids. 3 February 2022.
  207. Neri Vitor Eich (31 August 2009). "ANVISA proibe comercializacao do cigarro eletronico". Estado.com.br.
  208. "Main Policies - Argentinia". Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids. 3 February 2022.
  209. "Main Policies - Argentinia". Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids. 3 February 2022.
  210. Obourn, Erin (22 December 2014). "E-cigarette use slapped with growing provincial regulation". CBC News.
  211. Sienuic, Kat (29 September 2014). "Public health officers tackle hazy issue of e-cigarettes". The Globe and Mail.
  212. "Vaping, e-cigarettes to be regulated by Health Canada". CBC News. 22 November 2016.
  213. Struik, Laura L; Dow-Fleisner, Sarah; Belliveau, Michelle; Thompson, Desiree; Janke, Robert (2020). "Tactics for Drawing Youth to Vaping: Content Analysis of Electronic Cigarette Advertisements". Journal of Medical Internet Research. 22 (8): e18943. doi:10.2196/18943. ISSN 1438-8871. PMC 7455879. PMID 32663163. This article incorporates text by Laura L Struik, Sarah Dow-Fleisner, Michelle Belliveau, Desiree Thompson, and Robert Janke available under the CC BY 4.0 license.
  214. Morton, Brian (2 October 2014). "Vancouver to treat e-cigarettes like tobacco".
  215. Damerla, Hon Dipika. "Bill 45, Making Healthier Choices Act".
  216. "Fight Bill 45!". Esmoker Canada.
  217. Connolly, Amanda (27 June 2014). "Red Deer bans e-cigarettes under local smoking bylaw". CBC News.
  218. 218.0 218.1 "Health Canada proposes to lower the nicotine concentration limit in vaping products". Health Canada. 18 December 2020.
  219. Ferstl, Rachel (1 November 2023). "Calls for regulation in Manitoba, Canada picking up steam as Quebec's flavoured vape ban takes effect". CBC News.
  220. "Main Policies - Canada". Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids. 3 February 2022.
  221. "E-cigarette vaping in Chile". GSTHR. 2 September 2023.
  222. 222.0 222.1 "E-cigarette vaping in Colombia". GSTHR. 2 September 2023.
  223. 223.0 223.1 "Main Policies - Costa Rica". Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids. 29 July 2022.
  224. "E-cigarette vaping in Domincan Republic". GSTHR. 2 September 2023.
  225. 225.0 225.1 "Countries/Jurisdictions - Barbados". Institute for Global Tobacco Control. December 2020.
  226. 226.0 226.1 "Main Policies - El Salvador". Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids. 17 September 2019.
  227. "Falklands' all health and social services sites Smoke Free as of February". Merco Press. 19 August 2017.
  228. "Children and Young Persons (Tobacco) Ordinance 2007 - Section 4". Merco Press. 19 August 2017.
  229. "E-cigarette vaping in Domincan Republic". GSTHR. 2 September 2023.
  230. "Main Policies - El Salvador". Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids. 17 September 2019.
  231. 231.0 231.1 231.2 "Countries/Jurisdictions - Honduras". Institute for Global Tobacco Control. December 2020.
  232. 232.0 232.1 "Main Policies - El Salvador". Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids. 15 December 2021.
  233. 233.0 233.1 "Main Policies - Mexico". Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids. 23 January 2023.
  234. "Countries/Jurisdictions - Nicaragua". Institute for Global Tobacco Control. December 2020.
  235. "Countries/Jurisdictions - Panama". Institute for Global Tobacco Control. December 2020.
  236. Yaritza Gricel Mojica (21 October 2014). "Advierten sobre cigarrillos con veneno" [They warn about cigarettes with poison]. La Prensa (in Spanish).{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: unrecognized language (link)
  237. 237.0 237.1 "Countries/Jurisdictions - Paraguay". Institute for Global Tobacco Control. December 2020.
  238. 238.0 238.1 238.2 238.3 "E-Cigarette Regulations - Puerto Rico". Public Health Law Center. 2023.
  239. 239.0 239.1 "E-Cigarette Regulations - Virgin Islands". Public Health Law Center. 2023.
  240. 240.0 240.1 "Main Policies - Uruguay". Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids. 4 March 2020.
  241. 241.0 241.1 241.2 241.3 "Countries/Jurisdictions - Paraguay". Institute for Global Tobacco Control. December 2020.
  242. 242.0 242.1 242.2 "FDA's New Regulations for E-Cigarettes, Cigars, and All Other Tobacco Products". US Department of Health and Human Services. US Food and Drug Administration. 12 August 2016.
  243. Tremblay, MC; Pluye, P; Gore, G; Granikov, V; Filion, KB; Eisenberg, MJ (3 June 2015). "Regulation profiles of e-cigarettes in the United States: a critical review with qualitative synthesis". BMC Medicine. 13: 130. doi:10.1186/s12916-015-0370-z. PMC 4480885. PMID 26041672.
  244. "FDA Fighting for Authority to Regulate Electronic Cigarette". 2 March 2010.
  245. Wilson, Duff (15 January 2010). "Judge Orders F.D.A. to Stop Blocking Imports of E-Cigarettes From China". The New York Times.
  246. "AAFP.org". AAFP.org. Archived from the original on 18 November 2011.
  247. "FDA Cannot Block E-Cigarette Imports: Court". Fox News. 8 December 2010.
  248. FDA (14 February 2011). "FDA regulation of e-cigarettes rebuffed again". American Medical News.
  249. "Deeming Tobacco Products To Be Subject to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, as Amended by the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act; Regulations on the Sale and Distribution of Tobacco Products and Required Warning Statements for Tobacco Products". Federal Register. United States Food and Drug Administration. 79 (80): 23142–23207. 25 April 2014.
  250. Richtel, Matt (3 May 2014). "Some E-Cigarettes Deliver a Puff of Carcinogens". The New York Times.
  251. Brady Dennis for the Washington Post. 24 April 2014 FDA outlines plan to regulate e-cigarettes
  252. Sabrina Tavernise for the New York Times. 24 April 2014 F.D.A. Will Propose New Regulations for E-Cigarettes
  253. Rom, Oren; Pecorelli, Alessandra; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Reznick, Abraham Z. (2014). "Are E-cigarettes a safe and good alternative to cigarette smoking?". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1340: 65–74. doi:10.1111/nyas.12609. ISSN 0077-8923. PMID 25557889. S2CID 26187171.
  254. Marchione, Marilynn (25 August 2014). "Heart group says e-cigarettes may help end habit". The Boston Globe. Associated Press.
  255. Kadowaki, Joy; Vuolo, Mike; Kelly, Brian C. (2015). "A review of the current geographic distribution of and debate surrounding electronic cigarette clean air regulations in the United States". Health & Place. 31: 75–82. doi:10.1016/j.healthplace.2014.11.003. ISSN 1353-8292. PMC 4305454. PMID 25463920.
  256. Products, Center for Tobacco (6 January 2022). "Newsroom - FDA's Comprehensive Plan for Tobacco and Nicotine Regulation". www.fda.gov.
  257. 257.0 257.1 257.2 "The Facts on the FDA's New Tobacco Rule". US Department of Health and Human Services. US Food and Drug Administration. 7 August 2016.
  258. "Retailer Overview of FDA Regulations for Selling Tobacco Products". US Department of Health and Human Services. US Food and Drug Administration. 8 August 2016.
  259. Mickle, Tripp (15 September 2016). "FDA Cracks Down on Online Sales by E-Cigarette Industry". The Wall Street Journal.
  260. "FDA Regulation of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems and E-Liquids". FDA Center for Tobacco Products. July 20, 2018.
  261. Felberbaum, Michael (July 28, 2017). "FDA announces comprehensive regulatory plan to shift trajectory of tobacco-related disease, death" (Press release). FDA Center for Tobacco Products.
  262. "MRTP Application Actions (Orders, Denials, and Responses)". FDA Center for Tobacco Products. 1 August 2018.
  263. LaVito, Angelica (25 January 2018). "In high-stakes votes, FDA advisors say evidence doesn't back Philip Morris' claims". CNBC.
  264. 264.0 264.1 264.2 264.3 264.4 "FR 5597–F–03 Instituting Smoke- Free Public Housing". Regulations.gov. 5 December 2016.
  265. "2018 Warning Letters". FDA.gov. Retrieved 3 August 2018.
  266. McGinley, Laura (1 May 2018). "Feds crack down on e-liquid packaging that looks like candy, juice boxes". The Washington Post.
  267. 267.0 267.1 267.2 FDA Center for Tobacco Products (10 May 2018). "WARNING LETTER". Letter to 13th Floor Elevapors, LLC.
  268. Hahn, Jürgen; Monakhova, Yulia B; Hengen, Julia; Kohl-Himmelseher, Matthias; Schüssler, Jörg; Hahn, Harald; Kuballa, Thomas; Lachenmeier, Dirk W (2014-12-09). "Electronic cigarettes: overview of chemical composition and exposure estimation". Tobacco Induced Diseases. 12 (1): 23. doi:10.1186/s12971-014-0023-6. ISSN 2070-7266. PMC 4304610. PMID 25620905.
  269. Govindarajan, Preethi; Spiller, Henry A.; Casavant, Marcel J.; Chounthirath, Thitphalak; Smith, Gary A. (2018-04-23). "E-Cigarette and Liquid Nicotine Exposures Among Young Children". Pediatrics. 141 (5): e20173361. doi:10.1542/peds.2017-3361. ISSN 1098-4275. PMID 29686144.
  270. 270.0 270.1 "FDA takes new steps to address epidemic of youth e-cigarette use, including a historic action against more than 1,300 retailers and 5 major manufacturers for their roles perpetuating youth access". U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 12 September 2018.
  271. 271.0 271.1 271.2 271.3 271.4 "Statement from FDA Commissioner Scott Gottlieb, M.D., on proposed new steps to protect youth by preventing access to flavored tobacco products and banning menthol in cigarettes". United States Food and Drug Administration. 15 November 2018.Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  272. Kaplan, Sheila (11 September 2019). "Trump Administration Plans to Ban Flavored E-Cigarettes". The New York Times.
  273. "Summary of Federal Rules for Tobacco Retailers". United States Food and Drug Administration. 23 August 2017.
  274. "Extension of Certain Tobacco Product Compliance Deadlines Related to the Final Deeming Rule (Revised)". United States Food and Drug Administration. 4 August 2017.
  275. "Guidance: Extension of Certain Tobacco Product Compliance Deadlines Related to the Final Deeming Rule (Revised*)" (PDF). Center for Tobacco Products. United States Department of Health and Human Services; United States Food and Drug Administration. August 2017.
  276. Perrone, Matthew (28 March 2018). "Lawsuit Challenges FDA Delay of E-cigarette Review". Drug Discovery & Development. Associated Press.
  277. "Deeming Tobacco Products To Be Subject to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, as Amended by the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act; Restrictions on the Sale and Distribution of Tobacco Products and Required Warning Statements for Tobacco Products". Federal Register. US Food and Drug Administration. 81 (90): 28974–29106. 10 May 2016.
  278. 278.0 278.1 "U.S. Department of Transportation Explicitly Bans the Use of Electronic Cigarettes on Commercial Flights". United States Department of Transportation. 2 March 2016.
  279. Bonner, Emily; Chang, Yvonne; Christie, Emerson; Colvin, Victoria; Cunningham, Brittany; Elson, Daniel; Ghetu, Christine; Huizenga, Juliana; Hutton, Sara J.; Kolluri, Siva K.; Maggio, Stephanie; Moran, Ian; Parker, Bethany; Rericha, Yvonne; Rivera, Brianna N.; Samon, Samantha; Schwichtenberg, Trever; Shankar, Prarthana; Simonich, Michael T.; Wilson, Lindsay B.; Tanguay, Robyn L. (September 2021). "The chemistry and toxicology of vaping". Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 225: 107837. doi:10.1016/j.pharmthera.2021.107837. ISSN 0163-7258. PMC 8263470. PMID 33753133.
  280. "New Data Show More Than 2.5 Million U.S. Youth Currently Use E-Cigarettes". United States Food and Drug Administration. 6 October 2022.Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  281. "President Trump to propose ban on flavorings used in e-cigarettes". FOX6 News. Associated Press. 11 September 2019.
  282. 282.0 282.1 "FDA finalizes enforcement policy on unauthorized flavored cartridge-based e-cigarettes that appeal to children, including fruit and mint". United States Food and Drug Administration. 2 January 2020.Public Domain This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  283. Perrone, Matthew (26 June 2023). "Thousands of unauthorized vapes are pouring into the US despite the FDA crackdown on fruity flavors". AP News.
  284. Dave, Dhaval; Feng, Bo; Pesko, Michael F. (2019). "The effects of e-cigarette minimum legal sale age laws on youth substance use". Health Economics. 28 (3): 419–436. doi:10.1002/hec.3854. PMC 6377803. PMID 30648308.
  285. "E-Cigarette Regulations - Minnesota | Public Health Law Center". publichealthlawcenter.org.
  286. "How FDA is Regulating E-cigarettes".
  287. "FDA Deems Certain Tobacco Products Subject to FDA Authority, Sales and Distribution Restrictions, and Health Warning Requirements for Packages and Advertisements".
  288. "Electronic Cigarette Legislation Prohibiting Sale to Minors in Other States" (PDF). University of Maryland Law School. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 August 2013. Retrieved 30 August 2013.
  289. Morain, Stephanie Rubino; Malek, Janet (2017). "Minimum Age of Sale for Tobacco Products and Electronic Cigarettes: Ethical Acceptability of US "Tobacco 21 Laws"". American Journal of Public Health. 107 (9): e1–e5. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2017.303900. ISSN 0090-0036. PMC 5551602. PMID 28727531.
  290. "Alternative Nicotine Products – Electronic Cigarettes". National Conference of State Legislatures. 3 March 2017.
  291. Schwarzenegger, Arnold (12 October 2009). "SB 400 Senate Bill -Veto". California State Senate.
  292. Lempert, Lauren (2014). "The importance of product definitions in US e-cigarette laws and regulations". Tobacco Control. 25 (e1): e44–51. doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2014-051913. PMC 4466213. PMID 25512432.
  293. 293.0 293.1 Soule, Eric K; Maloney, Sarah F; Spindle, Tory R; Rudy, Alyssa K; Hiler, Marzena M; Cobb, Caroline O (2017). "Electronic cigarette use and indoor air quality in a natural setting". Tobacco Control. 26 (1): 109–112. doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2015-052772. ISSN 0964-4563. PMC 4985441. PMID 26880745.
  294. "States and Municipalities with Laws Regulating Use of Electronic Cigarettes" (PDF).
  295. Jackson, Irvin (23 August 2016). "E-Cigarette Explosion Risk Leads Navy to Consider Ban". AboutLawsuits.com.
  296. 296.0 296.1 King, Robert (26 July 2018). "San Francisco first city to ban e-cigarette flavors". The Washington Examiner.
  297. 297.0 297.1 Marcham, Cheryl L.; Springston, John P. (2019). "Electronic cigarettes in the indoor environment". Reviews on Environmental Health. 34 (2): 105–124. doi:10.1515/reveh-2019-0012. ISSN 2191-0308. PMID 31112510. S2CID 135122336.
  298. "Juul & E-Cig Bans | City & State Vaping Bans". Drugwatch.
  299. Cadham, Christopher J.; Liber, Alex C.; Sánchez-Romero, Luz María; Issabakhsh, Mona; Warner, Kenneth E.; Meza, Rafael; Levy, David T. (19 November 2022). "The actual and anticipated effects of restrictions on flavoured electronic nicotine delivery systems: a scoping review". BMC Public Health. 22 (1): 2128. doi:10.1186/s12889-022-14440-x. PMC 9675183. PMID 36402989. {{cite journal}}: Check |pmc= value (help) This article incorporates text by Christopher J. Cadham, Alex C. Liber, Luz María Sánchez-Romero, Mona Issabakhsh, Kenneth E. Warner, Rafael Meza, and David T. Levy available under the CC BY 4.0 license.
  300. 300.0 300.1 Sapru, Sakshi; Vardhan, Mridula; Li, Qianhao; Guo, Yuqi; Li, Xin; Saxena, Deepak (December 2020). "E-cigarettes use in the United States: reasons for use, perceptions, and effects on health". BMC Public Health. 20 (1): 1518. doi:10.1186/s12889-020-09572-x. This article incorporates text available under the CC BY 4.0 license.
  301. Marques, P; Piqueras, L; Sanz, MJ (18 May 2021). "An updated overview of e-cigarette impact on human health". Respiratory research. 22 (1): 151. doi:10.1186/s12931-021-01737-5. ISSN 1465-9921. PMC 8129966. PMID 34006276. This article incorporates text by Patrice Marques, Laura Piqueras, and Maria-Jesus Sanz available under the CC BY 4.0 license.
  302. Jenssen, Brian P.; Walley, Susan C.; Groner, Judith A.; Rahmandar, Maria; Boykan, Rachel; Mih, Bryan; Marbin, Jyothi N.; Caldwell, Alice Little (1 February 2019). "E-Cigarettes and Similar Devices". Pediatrics. 143 (2). doi:10.1542/peds.2018-3652. PMC 6644065. PMID 30835247.

External links