Tricuspid atresia

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Tricuspid atresia
Other names: Tri atresia[1]
Tricuspid atresia.svg
Anterior (frontal) view of the opened heart. White arrows indicate normal blood flow. (Atresic tricuspid valve labeled at bottom left.)

Tricuspid atresia is a form of congenital heart disease whereby there is a complete absence of the tricuspid valve.[2] Therefore, there is an absence of right atrioventricular connection.[2] This leads to a hypoplastic (undersized) or absent right ventricle. This defect is contracted during prenatal development, when the heart does not finish developing. It causes the systemic circulation to be filled with relatively deoxygenated blood. Because of this, hypoxia occurs, so other defects must occur to maintain blood flow. Because of the lack of an atrioventricular connection, an atrial septal defect (ASD) must be present to fill the left atrium and the left ventricle with blood.[3] Since there is a lack of a right ventricle, there must be a way to pump blood into the pulmonary arteries, and this is accomplished by a ventricular septal defect (VSD). The causes of tricupsid atresia are unknown.[4]

A combined atrial septal defect (ASD) and a ventricular septal defect (VSD) can be present to maintain blood flow-from the right atrium, the blood must flow through the ASD to the left atrium to the left ventricle and through the VSD to the right ventricle to allow access to the lungs.

Alternatively, an atrial septal defect (ASD) with a patent ductus arteriosus may also be present, thus causing blood flow from the right atrium to the left atrium to the left ventricle to the aorta and then to the pulmonary artery. In these cases, prostaglandin E1 is used to maintain patency of the ductus arteriosus until emergency corrective surgery can be completed.

Presentation

Cause

Tricuspid atresia is caused by complete absence of the tricuspid valve.[2] The underlying cause of this absence remains unknown.[4] This prevents direct blood flow between the right atrium and the right ventricle.[2] This causes the foramen ovale to remain open after birth, leading to atrial septal defect.[3]

Diagnosis

Diagnosis is based on:[citation needed] CXR : decreased pulmonary blood flow and oligemic lung field

ECG : left axis deviation

Treatment

Tricuspid atresia -a) SSFP image indicates absent tricuspid valve replaced by fatty wedge tissue in right AV groove arrow b) tricuspid atresia in individual with dextro-transposition of great arteries this was treated with Fontan shunt arrow

Treatment is based on:[citation needed]

Epidemiology

Tricuspid atresia is the third most common critical congenital heart defect.[2]

It is estimated to cause between 1% and 3% of all congenital heart defects.[5]

See also

References

  1. "Tricuspid atresia: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia". medlineplus.gov. Archived from the original on 27 July 2019. Retrieved 28 May 2019.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Murthy, Raghav; Nigro, John; Karamlou, Tara (2019-01-01), Ungerleider, Ross M.; Meliones, Jon N.; Nelson McMillan, Kristen; Cooper, David S. (eds.), "65 - Tricuspid Atresia", Critical Heart Disease in Infants and Children (Third Edition), Philadelphia: Elsevier, pp. 765–777.e3, doi:10.1016/b978-1-4557-0760-7.00065-6, ISBN 978-1-4557-0760-7, archived from the original on 2022-01-11, retrieved 2020-11-27
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Lok, Josephine M.; Spevak, Philip J.; Nichols, David G. (2006-01-01), Nichols, David G.; Ungerleider, Ross M.; Spevak, Philip J.; Greeley, William J. (eds.), "Chapter 39 - Tricuspid Atresia", Critical Heart Disease in Infants and Children (Second Edition), Philadelphia: Mosby, pp. 799–822, ISBN 978-0-323-01281-2, archived from the original on 2022-01-11, retrieved 2020-12-05
  4. 4.0 4.1 "Congenital Heart Defects - Facts about Tricuspid Atresia | CDC". 2019-01-22. Archived from the original on 2021-10-19. Retrieved 2021-11-27.
  5. Hoffman Julien I.E; Kaplan Samuel (2002-06-19). "The incidence of congenital heart disease". Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 39 (12): 1890–1900. doi:10.1016/S0735-1097(02)01886-7. PMID 12084585. Archived from the original on 2022-01-11. Retrieved 2021-11-27.

External links

Classification
External resources