Thyroid adenoma

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Thyroid adenoma
Thyroid adenoma
SpecialtyOncology, endocrinology

A thyroid adenoma is a benign tumor of the thyroid gland, that may be inactive or active (functioning autonomously) as a toxic adenoma.

Signs and symptoms

A thyroid adenoma may be clinically silent ("cold" adenoma), or it may be a functional tumor, producing excessive thyroid hormone ("warm" or "hot" adenoma). In this case, it may result in symptomatic hyperthyroidism, and may be referred to as a toxic thyroid adenoma.

Cause

Most common causes of hyperthyroidism by age.[1]

As to the cause of Thyroid adenoma we find:[2]

Diagnosis

Morphology

Thyroid follicular adenoma ranges in diameter from 3 cm on an average, but sometimes is larger (up to 10 cm) or smaller. The typical thyroid adenoma is solitary, spherical and encapsulated lesion that is well demarcated from the surrounding parenchyma. The color ranges from gray-white to red-brown, depending upon

  1. the cellularity of the adenoma
  2. the colloid content.

Areas of hemorrhage, fibrosis, calcification, and cystic change, similar to what is found in multinodular goiters, are common in thyroid (follicular) adenoma, particularly in larger lesions.

Types

Almost all thyroid adenomata are follicular adenomata.[3] Follicular adenomata can be described as "cold", "warm" or "hot" depending on their level of function.[4] Histopathologically, follicular adenomata can be classified according to their cellular architecture and relative amounts of cellularity and colloid into the following types:

  • Fetal (microfollicular) - these have the potential for microinvasion.[5] These consist of small, closely packed follicles lined with epithelium.[6]
  • Colloid (macrofollicular) - these do not have any potential for microinvasion[5]
  • Embryonal (atypical) - have the potential for microinvasion.[5]
  • Hürthle cell adenoma (oxyphil or oncocytic tumor) - have the potential for microinvasion.[5]
  • Hyalinizing trabecular adenoma[7]

Papillary adenomata are very rare.[5]

Differential diagnosis

A thyroid adenoma is distinguished from a multinodular goiter of the thyroid in that an adenoma is typically solitary, and is a neoplasm resulting from a genetic mutation (or other genetic abnormality) in a single precursor cell.[8] In contrast, a multinodular goiter is usually thought to result from a hyperplastic response of the entire thyroid gland to a stimulus, such as iodine deficiency.

Careful pathological examination may be necessary to distinguish a thyroid adenoma from a minimally invasive follicular thyroid carcinoma.[8]

Management

Intraoperative dissection showing the intact mass and the sternocleidomastoid muscle to the side.

Most patients with thyroid adenoma can be managed by watchful waiting (without surgical excision) with regular monitoring.[9] However, some patients still choose surgery after being fully informed of the risks.[9]

Regular monitoring mainly consists of watching for changes in nodule size and symptoms, and repeat ultrasonography or needle aspiration biopsy if the nodule grows.[9]

For patients with benign thyroid adenomata, thyroid lobectomy and isthmusectomy is a sufficient surgical treatment. This procedure is also adequate for patients with minimally invasive thyroid cancer. When histological examination shows no signs of malignancy, then no further intervention is required. These patients should continue to have their thyroid hormone status regularly checked.[10]

References

  1. Carlé, Allan; Pedersen, Inge Bülow; Knudsen, Nils; Perrild, Hans; Ovesen, Lars; Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Laurberg, Peter (2011). "Epidemiology of subtypes of hyperthyroidism in Denmark: a population-based study". European Journal of Endocrinology. 164 (5): 801–809. doi:10.1530/EJE-10-1155. ISSN 0804-4643.
  2. Mulita, Francesk; Anjum, Fatima (2022). "Thyroid Adenoma". StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing. Archived from the original on 12 July 2022. Retrieved 3 July 2022. {{cite book}}: More than one of |archivedate= and |archive-date= specified (help); More than one of |archiveurl= and |archive-url= specified (help)
  3. Cotran, Ramzi S.; Kumar, Vinay; Fausto, Nelson; Nelso Fausto; Robbins, Stanley L.; Abbas, Abulr9 K. (2005). Robbins and Cotran pathologic basis of disease. St. Louis, Mo: Elsevier Saunders. p. 1117. ISBN 978-0-7216-0187-8.
  4. "Endocrine Pathology". Archived from the original on 2013-09-29. Retrieved 2009-05-08. {{cite web}}: More than one of |archivedate= and |archive-date= specified (help); More than one of |archiveurl= and |archive-url= specified (help)
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 emedicine > Thyroid, Evaluation of Solitary Thyroid Nodule > Benign Thyroid Nodules Archived 2021-03-09 at the Wayback Machine By Daniel J Kelley and Arlen D Meyers. Updated: Oct 17, 2008
  6. TheFreeDictionary > microfollicular adenoma Archived 2020-12-06 at the Wayback Machine Citing: Dorland's Medical Dictionary for Health Consumers. Copyright 2007
  7. Ünlütürk, U; Karaveli, G; Sak, S. D.; Erdoğan, M. F. (2011). "Hyalinizing trabecular tumor in a background of lymphocytic thyroiditis: A challenging neoplasm of the thyroid". Endocrine Practice. 17 (6): e140–3. doi:10.4158/EP11138.CR. PMID 21940281.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Ramzi Cotran; Vinay Kumar; Tucker Collins (1999). Robbins Pathologic Basis of Disease, 6th Edition. W.B. Saunders. ISBN 978-0-7216-7335-6.
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 Treatment section in: Welker, M.; Orlov, D. (2003). "Thyroid nodules". American Family Physician. 67 (3): 559–566. PMID 12588078. [1] Archived 2022-01-29 at the Wayback Machine
  10. Mulita, Francesk; Anjum, Fatima (2020), "Thyroid Adenoma", StatPearls, Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing, PMID 32965923, archived from the original on 2022-07-12, retrieved 2020-11-07 {{citation}}: More than one of |archivedate= and |archive-date= specified (help); More than one of |archiveurl= and |archive-url= specified (help)

External links

Classification