Sulfadiazine

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Sulfadiazine
Sulfadiazine-2D-skeletal.png
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Names
Clinical data
Drug classAntibiotic (sulfonamide)[1]
Main usesToxoplasmosis[2]
Pregnancy
category
  • US: C (Risk not ruled out)[3]
Routes of
use
Topical cream, by mouth
Defined daily dose0.6 gram[4]
External links
AHFS/Drugs.comMonograph
MedlinePlusa682130
Legal
Legal status
  • In general: ℞ (Prescription only)
Pharmacokinetics
Bioavailability?
Protein binding38-48%[1]
MetabolismLiver (acetylation)[1]
Elimination half-life7-17 hours [1]
ExcretionUrine [1]
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC10H10N4O2S
Molar mass250.28 g·mol−1
Melting point252 to 256 °C (486 to 493 °F)
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Sulfadiazine is an antibiotic.[1] Used together with pyrimethamine, it is the treatment of choice for toxoplasmosis.[5] It is a second-line treatment for otitis media, prevention of rheumatic fever, chancroid, chlamydia, and infections by Haemophilus influenzae.[1] It is taken by mouth.[1]

Common side effects include nausea, diarrhea, headache, fever, rash, depression, and pancreatitis.[1] It should not be used in people who have severe liver problems, kidney problems, or porphyria.[5] If used during pregnancy, it may increase the risk of kernicterus in the baby.[1] While the company that makes it does not recommend use during breastfeeding, use is believed to be safe if the baby is otherwise healthy.[3] It is in the sulfonamide class of medications.[1]

Sulfadiazine was approved for medical use in the United States in 1941.[1][6] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines.[7] Sulfadiazine is available as a generic medication.[1] The wholesale cost in the developing world is about US$2.70 to 7.32 a month.[8] In the United States, treatment costs more than $200 per month.[9]

Medical uses

It eliminates bacteria that cause infections by stopping the production of folate inside the bacterial cell, and is commonly used to treat urinary tract infections and burns.

In combination, sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine can be used to treat toxoplasmosis, the disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii.

Dosage

The defined daily dose is 0.6 gram (by mouth).[4] For the treatment of toxoplasmosis the dose is 2 grams two to three times per day for at least six weeks.[2] Doses for prevention are 1 gram twice per day.[2]

Mechanism of action

Sulfadiazine works by inhibiting the enzyme dihydropteroate synthetase.

Side effects

Side effects reported for sulfadiazine include nausea, loss of appetite, and dizziness.

Pregnancy and breastfeeding

While use during pregnancy appears to be generally okay, use during the last 4 weeks of pregnancy is not recommended due to the risk of red blood cell break down in the baby.[2] Use during breastfeeding of a baby under a month of age is not recommended.[2]

Brand names

This drug is sold branded as Lantrisul, Neotrizine, Sulfa-Triple #2, Sulfadiazine, Sulfaloid, Sulfonamides Duplex, Sulfose, Terfonyl, Triple Sulfa, Triple Sulfas, and Triple Sulfoid.

See also

References

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 "Sulfadiazine". The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 "SULFADIAZINE oral - Essential drugs". medicalguidelines.msf.org. Retrieved 25 August 2020.
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Sulfadiazine Use During Pregnancy | Drugs.com". www.drugs.com. Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 28 June 2017.
  4. 4.0 4.1 "WHOCC - ATC/DDD Index". www.whocc.no. Retrieved 21 September 2020.
  5. 5.0 5.1 World Health Organization (2009). Stuart MC, Kouimtzi M, Hill SR (eds.). WHO Model Formulary 2008. World Health Organization. pp. 126, 205. hdl:10665/44053. ISBN 9789241547659.
  6. "Drugs@FDA: FDA Approved Drug Products". www.accessdata.fda.gov. Retrieved 11 November 2018.
  7. World Health Organization (2019). World Health Organization model list of essential medicines: 21st list 2019. Geneva: World Health Organization. hdl:10665/325771. WHO/MVP/EMP/IAU/2019.06. License: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
  8. "Sulfadiazine". International Drug Price Indicator Guide. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
  9. Hamilton, Richart (2015). Tarascon Pocket Pharmacopoeia 2015 Deluxe Lab-Coat Edition. Jones & Bartlett Learning. p. 104. ISBN 9781284057560.

External links

External sites:
Identifiers: