|Drug class||Antibiotic (sulfonamide)|
|Topical cream, by mouth|
|Defined daily dose||0.6 gram|
|Elimination half-life||7-17 hours |
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||250.28 g·mol−1|
|Melting point||252 to 256 °C (486 to 493 °F)|
|(what is this?)|
Sulfadiazine is an antibiotic. Used together with pyrimethamine, it is the treatment of choice for toxoplasmosis. It is a second-line treatment for otitis media, prevention of rheumatic fever, chancroid, chlamydia, and infections by Haemophilus influenzae. It is taken by mouth.
Common side effects include nausea, diarrhea, headache, fever, rash, depression, and pancreatitis. It should not be used in people who have severe liver problems, kidney problems, or porphyria. If used during pregnancy, it may increase the risk of kernicterus in the baby. While the company that makes it does not recommend use during breastfeeding, use is believed to be safe if the baby is otherwise healthy. It is in the sulfonamide class of medications.
Sulfadiazine was approved for medical use in the United States in 1941. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. Sulfadiazine is available as a generic medication. The wholesale cost in the developing world is about US$2.70 to 7.32 a month. In the United States, treatment costs more than $200 per month.
In combination, sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine can be used to treat toxoplasmosis, the disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii.
The defined daily dose is 0.6 gram (by mouth). For the treatment of toxoplasmosis the dose is 2 grams two to three times per day for at least six weeks. Doses for prevention are 1 gram twice per day.
Mechanism of action
Sulfadiazine works by inhibiting the enzyme dihydropteroate synthetase.
Pregnancy and breastfeeding
While use during pregnancy appears to be generally okay, use during the last 4 weeks of pregnancy is not recommended due to the risk of red blood cell break down in the baby. Use during breastfeeding of a baby under a month of age is not recommended.
This drug is sold branded as Lantrisul, Neotrizine, Sulfa-Triple #2, Sulfadiazine, Sulfaloid, Sulfonamides Duplex, Sulfose, Terfonyl, Triple Sulfa, Triple Sulfas, and Triple Sulfoid.
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