|Other names||Postnatal depression|
|Symptoms||Extreme sadness, low energy, anxiety, changes in sleeping or eating patterns, crying episodes, irritability|
|Usual onset||A week to a month after childbirth|
|Risk factors||Prior postpartum depression, bipolar disorder, family history of depression, psychological stress, complications of childbirth, lack of support, drug use disorder|
|Diagnostic method||Based on symptoms|
|Differential diagnosis||Baby blues|
|Frequency||~15% of births|
Postpartum depression (PPD), also called postnatal depression, is a type of mood disorder associated with childbirth, which can affect both sexes. Symptoms may include extreme sadness, low energy, anxiety, crying episodes, irritability, and changes in sleeping or eating patterns. Onset is typically between one week and one month following childbirth. PPD can also negatively affect the newborn child.
While the exact cause of PPD is unclear, the cause is believed to be a combination of physical, emotional, genetic, and social factors. These may include factors such as hormonal changes and sleep deprivation. Risk factors include prior episodes of postpartum depression, bipolar disorder, a family history of depression, psychological stress, complications of childbirth, lack of support, or a drug use disorder. Diagnosis is based on a person's symptoms. While most women experience a brief period of worry or unhappiness after delivery, postpartum depression should be suspected when symptoms are severe and last over two weeks.
Among those at risk, providing psychosocial support may be protective in preventing PPD. This may include community support such as food, household chores, mother care, and companionship. Treatment for PPD may include counseling or medications. Types of counseling that have been found to be effective include interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), and psychodynamic therapy. Tentative evidence supports the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs).
Postpartum depression affects roughly 15% of women after childbirth. Moreover, this mood disorder is estimated to affect 1% to 26% of new fathers. Postpartum psychosis, a more severe form of postpartum mood disorder, occurs in about 1 to 2 per 1,000 women following childbirth. Postpartum psychosis is one of the leading causes of the murder of children less than one year of age, which occurs in about 8 per 100,000 births in the United States.
- 1 Signs and symptoms
- 2 Causes
- 3 Diagnosis
- 4 Screening
- 5 Prevention
- 6 Treatments
- 7 Epidemiology
- 8 History
- 9 Society and culture
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 External links
Signs and symptoms
- Persistent sadness, anxiousness or "empty" mood
- Severe mood swings
- Frustration, irritability, restlessness, anger
- Feelings of hopelessness or helplessness
- Guilt, shame, worthlessness
- Low self-esteem
- Numbness, emptiness
- Inability to be comforted
- Trouble bonding with the baby
- Feeling inadequate in taking care of the baby
- Thoughts of self-harm or suicide
- Lack of interest or pleasure in usual activities
- Low libido
- Changes in appetite
- Fatigue, decreased energy and motivation
- Poor self-care
- Social withdrawal
- Insomnia or excessive sleep
- Diminished ability to make decisions and think clearly
- Lack of concentration and poor memory
- Fear that you can not care for the baby or fear of the baby
- Worry about harming self, baby, or partner
Onset and duration
Postpartum depression onset usually begins between two weeks to a month after delivery. A study done at an inner-city mental health clinic has shown that 50% of postpartum depressive episodes there began prior to delivery. Therefore, in the DSM-5 postpartum depression is diagnosed under "depressive disorder with peripartum onset", in which "peripartum onset" is defined as anytime either during pregnancy or within the four weeks following delivery. PPD may last several months or even a year. Postpartum depression can also occur in women who have suffered a miscarriage. For fathers, several studies show that men experience the highest levels of postpartum depression between 3–6 months postpartum.
Postpartum depression can interfere with normal maternal-infant bonding and adversely affect acute and longterm child development. Postpartum depression may lead mothers to be inconsistent with childcare. These childcare inconsistencies may include feeding routines, sleep routines, and health maintenance.
In rare cases, or about 1 to 2 per 1,000, the postpartum depression appears as postpartum psychosis. In these, or among women with a history of previous psychiatric hospital admissions, infanticide may occur. In the United States, postpartum depression is one of the leading causes of annual reported infanticide incidence rate of about 8 per 100,000 births.
The cause of PPD is not well understood. Hormonal changes, genetics, and major life events have been hypothesized as potential causes.
Evidence suggests that hormonal changes may play a role. Hormones which have been studied include estrogen, progesterone, thyroid hormone, testosterone, corticotropin releasing hormone, endorphins, and cortisol. Estrogen and progesterone levels drop back to pre-pregnancy levels within 24 hours of giving birth, and that sudden change may cause it. The use of synthetic oxytocin, a birth-inducing drug, has been linked to increased rates of postpartum depression and anxiety.
Fathers, who are not undergoing profound hormonal changes, can also have postpartum depression. The cause may be distinct in males.
Profound lifestyle changes that are brought about by caring for the infant are also frequently hypothesized to cause PPD. However, little evidence supports this hypothesis. Mothers who have had several previous children without suffering PPD can nonetheless suffer it with their latest child. Despite the biological and psychosocial changes that may accompany pregnancy and the postpartum period, most women are not diagnosed with PPD. Many mothers are unable to get the rest they need to fully recover from giving birth. Sleep deprivation can lead to physical discomfort and exhaustion, which can contribute to the symptoms of postpartum depression.
While the causes of PPD are not understood, a number of factors have been suggested to increase the risk:
- Prenatal depression or anxiety
- A personal or family history of depression
- Moderate to severe premenstrual symptoms
- Stressful life events experienced during pregnancy
- Postpartum blues
- Birth-related psychological trauma
- Birth-related physical trauma
- History of sexual abuse
- Childhood trauma
- Previous stillbirth or miscarriage
- Formula-feeding rather than breast-feeding
- Cigarette smoking
- Low self-esteem
- Childcare or life stress
- Low social support
- Poor marital relationship or single marital status
- Low socioeconomic status
- A lack of strong emotional support from spouse, partner, family, or friends
- Infant temperament problems/colic
- Unplanned/unwanted pregnancy
- Low vitamin D levels
- Breastfeeding difficulties
- Administration of labor-inducing medication synthetic oxytocin
These above factors are known to correlate with PPD. This correlation does not mean these factors are causal. Rather, they might both be caused by some third factor. Contrastingly, some factors almost certainly attribute to the cause of postpartum depression, such as lack of social support. The relationship between breastfeeding and PPD is not clear.
Women with fewer resources indicate a higher level of postpartum depression and stress than those women with more resources, such as financial. Rates of PPD have been shown to decrease as income increases. Women with fewer resources may be more likely to have an unintended or unwanted pregnancy, increasing risk of PPD. Women with fewer resources may also include single mothers of low income. Single mothers of low income may have more limited access to resources while transitioning into motherhood.
Studies have also shown a correlation between a mother's race and postpartum depression. African American mothers have been shown to have the highest risk of PPD at 25%, while Asian mothers had the lowest at 11.5%, after controlling for social factors such as age, income, education, marital status, and baby's health. The PPD rates for First Nations, Caucasian and Hispanic women fell in between.
Migration away from a cultural community of support can be a factor in PPD. Traditional cultures around the world prioritize organized support during postpartum care to ensure the mother's mental and physical health, wellbeing, and recovery.
One of the strongest predictors of paternal PPD is having a partner who has PPD, with fathers developing PPD 50% of the time when their female partner has PPD.
Sexual orientation has also been studied as a risk factor for PPD. In a 2007 study conducted by Ross and colleagues, lesbian and bisexual mothers were tested for PPD and then compared with a heterosexual sample group. It was found that lesbian and bisexual biological mothers had significantly higher Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale scores than did the heterosexual women in the sample. These higher rates of PPD in lesbian/bisexual mothers may reflect less social support, particularly from their families of origin and additional stress due to homophobic discrimination in society.
A correlation between postpartum thyroiditis and postpartum depression has been proposed but remains controversial. There may also be a link between postpartum depression and anti-thyroid antibodies.
A meta-analysis reviewing research on the association of violence and postpartum depression showed that violence against women increases the incidence of postpartum depression. About one-third of women throughout the world will experience physical or sexual violence at some point in their lives. Violence against women occurs in conflict, post-conflict, and non-conflict areas. It is important to note that the research reviewed only looked at violence experienced by women from male perpetrators, but did not consider violence inflicted on men or women by women. Further, violence against women was defined as "any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual, or psychological harm or suffering to women". Psychological and cultural factors associated with increased incidence of postpartum depression include family history of depression, stressful life events during early puberty or pregnancy, anxiety or depression during pregnancy, and low social support. Violence against women is a chronic stressor, so depression may occur when someone is no longer able to respond to the violence.
Postpartum depression in the DSM-5 is known as "depressive disorder with peripartum onset". Peripartum onset is defined as starting anytime during pregnancy or within the four weeks following delivery. There is no longer a distinction made between depressive episodes that occur during pregnancy or those that occur after delivery. Nevertheless, the majority of experts continue to diagnose postpartum depression as depression with onset anytime within the first year after delivery.
The criteria required for the diagnosis of postpartum depression are the same as those required to make a diagnosis of non-childbirth related major depression or minor depression. The criteria include at least five of the following nine symptoms, within a two-week period:
- Feelings of sadness, emptiness, or hopelessness, nearly every day, for most of the day or the observation of a depressed mood made by others
- Loss of interest or pleasure in activities
- Weight loss or decreased appetite
- Changes in sleep patterns
- Feelings of restlessness
- Loss of energy
- Feelings of worthlessness or guilt
- Loss of concentration or increased indecisiveness
- Recurrent thoughts of death, with or without plans of suicide
Postpartum blues, commonly known as "baby blues," is a transient postpartum mood disorder characterized by milder depressive symptoms than postpartum depression. This type of depression can occur in up to 80% of all mothers following delivery. Symptoms typically resolve within two weeks. Symptoms lasting longer than two weeks are a sign of a more serious type of depression. Women who experience "baby blues" may have a higher risk of experiencing a more serious episode of depression later on.
Postpartum psychosis is not a formal diagnosis, but is widely used to describe a psychiatric emergency that appears to occur in about 1 in a 1000 pregnancies, in which symptoms of high mood and racing thoughts (mania), depression, severe confusion, loss of inhibition, paranoia, hallucinations and delusions begin suddenly in the first two weeks after delivery; the symptoms vary and can change quickly. It is different from postpartum depression and from maternity blues. It may be a form of bipolar disorder. It is important not to confuse psychosis with other symptoms that may occur after delivery, such as delirium. Delirium typically includes a loss of awareness or inability to pay attention.
About half of women who experience postpartum psychosis have no risk factors; but a prior history of mental illness, especially bipolar disorder, a history of prior episodes of postpartum psychosis, or a family history put some at a higher risk.
The most severe symptoms last from 2 to 12 weeks, and recovery takes 6 months to a year. Women who have been hospitalized for a psychiatric condition immediately after delivery are at a much higher risk of suicide during the first year after delivery.
In the US, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists suggests healthcare providers consider depression screening for perinatal women. Additionally, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends pediatricians screen mothers for PPD at 1-month, 2-month and 4-month visits. However, many providers do not consistently provide screening and appropriate follow-up. For example, in Canada, Alberta is the only province with universal PPD screening. This screening is carried out by Public Health nurses with the baby's immunization schedule.
The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, a standardized self-reported questionnaire, may be used to identify women who have postpartum depression. If the new mother scores 13 or more, she likely has PPD and further assessment should follow.
Healthcare providers may take a blood sample to test if another disorder is contributing to depression during the screening.
A 2013 Cochrane review found evidence that psychosocial or psychological intervention after childbirth helped reduce the risk of postnatal depression. These interventions included home visits, telephone-based peer support, and interpersonal psychotherapy. Support is an important aspect of prevention, as depressed mothers commonly state that their feelings of depression were brought on by "lack of support" and "feeling isolated."
Across different cultures, traditional rituals for postpartum care may be preventative for PPD, but are more effective when the support is welcomed by the mother.
In couples, emotional closeness and global support by the partner protect against both perinatal depression and anxiety. Further factors such as communication between the couple and relationship satisfaction have a protective effect against anxiety alone.
Treatment for mild to moderate PPD includes psychological interventions or antidepressants. Women with moderate to severe PPD would likely experience a greater benefit with a combination of psychological and medical interventions. Light aerobic exercise has been found to be useful for mild and moderate cases.
Both individual social and psychological interventions appear equally effective in the treatment of PPD. Social interventions include individual counseling and peer support, while psychological interventions include cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and interpersonal therapy (IPT). Other forms of therapy, such as group therapy, home visits, counseling, and ensuring greater sleep for the mother may also have a benefit.
Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (iCBT) has shown promising results with lower negative parenting behavior scores and lower rates of anxiety, stress, and depression. iCBT may be beneficial for mothers who have limitations in accessing in person CBT. However, the long term benefits have not been determined.
A 2010 review found few studies of medications for treating PPD noting small sample sizes and generally weak evidence. Some evidence suggests that mothers with PPD will respond similarly to people with major depressive disorder. There is evidence which suggests that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are effective treatment for PPD. The first-line anti-depressant medication of choice is sertraline, an SSRI, as very little of the it passes into the breast milk and, as a result, to the child. However, a recent study has found that adding sertraline to psychotherapy does not appear to confer any additional benefit. Therefore, it is not completely clear which antidepressants, if any, are most effective for treatment of PPD, and for whom antidepressants would be a better option than non-pharmacotherapy.
Some studies show that hormone therapy may be effective in women with PPD, supported by the idea that the drop in estrogen and progesterone levels post-delivery contribute to depressive symptoms. However, there is some controversy with this form of treatment because estrogen should not be given to people who are at higher risk of blood clots, which include women up to 12 weeks after delivery. Additionally, none of the existing studies included women who were breastfeeding. However, there is some evidence that the use of estradiol patches might help with PPD symptoms.
In 2019, the FDA approved brexanolone, a synthetic analog of the neurosteroid allopregnanolone, for use intravenously in postpartum depression. Allopregnanolone levels drop after giving birth, which may lead to women becoming depressed and anxious. Some trials have demonstrated an effect on PPD within 48 hours from the start of infusion. Other new allopregnanolone analogs under evaluation for use in the treatment of PPD include SAGE-2017 and ganaxolone.
Brexanolone has risks that can occur during administration, including excessive sedation and sudden loss of consciousness, and therefore has been approved under the Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS) program. The mother is to enrolled prior to receiving the medication. It is only available to those at certified health care facilities with a health care provider who can continually monitor the patient. The infusion itself is a 60-hour, or 2.5 day, process. People's oxygen levels are to be monitored with a pulse oximeter. Side effects of the medication include dry mouth, sleepiness, somnolence, flushing and loss of consciousness. It is also important to monitor for early signs of suicidal thoughts or behaviors.
Antidepressant medications are generally considered safe to use during breastfeeding. Most antidepressants are excreted in breast milk. However, there are limited studies showing the effects and safety of these antidepressants on breastfed babies. Regarding allopregnanolone, very limited data did not indicate a risk for the infant.
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has shown efficacy in women with severe PPD that have either failed multiple trials of medication-based treatment or cannot tolerate the available antidepressants. Tentative evidence supports the use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS).
Postpartum depression is found across the globe, with rates varying from 11% to 42%. Around 3% to 6% of women will experience depression during pregnancy or shortly after giving birth. About 1 in 750 mothers will have postpartum depression with psychosis and their risk is higher if they have had postpartum episodes in the past.
Prior to the 19th century
Western medical science's understanding and construction of postpartum depression has evolved over the centuries. Ideas surrounding women’s moods and states have been around for a long time, typically recorded by men. In 460 B.C., Hippocrates wrote about puerperal fever, agitation, delirium, and mania experienced by women after child birth. Hippocrates' ideas still linger in how postpartum depression is seen today.
A woman who lived in the 14th century, Margery Kempe, was a Christian mystic. She was a pilgrim known as "Madwoman" after having a tough labor and delivery. There was a long physical recovery period during which she started descending into "madness" and became suicidal. Based on her descriptions of visions of demons and conversations she wrote about that she had with religious figures like God and the Virgin Mary, historians have identified what Margery Kempe was suffering from as "postnatal psychosis" and not postpartum depression. This distinction became important to emphasis the difference between postpartum depression and postpartum psychosis. A 16th century physician, Castello Branco, documented a case of postpartum depression without the formal title as a relatively healthy woman who suffered from melancholy after childbirth, remained insane for a month, and recovered with treatment. Although this treatment was not described, experimental treatments began to be implemented for postpartum depression for the centuries that followed. Connections between female reproductive function and mental illness would continue to center around reproductive organs from this time all the way through to modern age, with a slowly evolving discussion around "female madness".
19th century and after
With the 19th century came a new attitude about the relationship between female mental illness and pregnancy, childbirth, or menstruation. The famous short story, The Yellow Wallpaper, was published by Charlotte Perkins Gilman in this period. In the story, an unnamed woman journals her life when she is treated by her physician husband, John, for hysterical and depressive tendencies after the birth of their baby. Gilman wrote the story to protest societal oppression of women as the result of her own experience as a patient. Her tale is likely to have resonated with many women because female hysteria was a common medical diagnosis at the time, having arisen many centuries earlier as the first mental disorder attributed to specifically women. Hysterical neurosis was not removed from the DSM until 1980, whereas postpartum depression continues to be excluded as a unique "distinct disorder" and was only added into the fourth edition as a "course modified" in 1994. Thus, in the 19th century, the idea of female hysteria was often conflated and confused with symptoms of postpartum depression, all in connection with the prevailing mindset that women were weak and vulnerable to mental illness.
Also during the 19th century, gynecologists embraced the idea that female reproductive organs, and the natural processes they were involved in, were at fault for "female insanity." Approximately 10% of asylum admissions during this time period are connected to “puerperal insanity,” the named intersection between pregnancy or childbirth and female mental illness. It wasn't until the onset of the twentieth century that the attitude of the scientific community shifted once again: the consensus amongst gynecologists and other medical experts was to turn away from the idea of diseased reproductive organs and instead towards more "scientific theories" that encompassed a broadening medical perspective on mental illness.
Society and culture
Malay culture holds a belief in Hantu Meroyan; a spirit that resides in the placenta and amniotic fluid. When this spirit is unsatisfied and venting resentment, it causes the mother to experience frequent crying, loss of appetite, and trouble sleeping, known collectively as "sakit meroyan". The mother can be cured with the help of a shaman, who performs a séance to force the spirits to leave.
Some cultures believe that the symptoms of postpartum depression or similar illnesses can be avoided through protective rituals in the period after birth. These may include offering structures of organized support, hygiene care, diet, rest, infant care, and breastfeeding instruction. The rituals appear to be most effective when the support is welcomed by the mother. Globalization and migration can disconnect women from their traditional communities of maternal support, which can be positive or negative depending on the traditions and on the mother's wishes.
Some Chinese women participate in a ritual that is known as "doing the month" (confinement) in which they spend the first 30 days after giving birth resting in bed, while the mother or mother-in-law takes care of domestic duties and childcare. In addition, the new mother is not allowed to bathe or shower, wash her hair, clean her teeth, leave the house, or be blown by the wind.
In the US, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act included a section focusing on research into postpartum conditions including postpartum depression. Some argue that more resources in the form of policies, programs, and health objectives need to be directed to the care of those with PPD.
The stigma of mental health - with or without support from family members and health professionals - often deters women from seeking help for their PPD. When medical help is achieved, some women find the diagnosis helpful and encourage a higher profile for PPD amongst the health professional community.
Certain cases of postpartum mental health concerns received attention in the media and brought about dialogue on ways to address and understand more on postpartum mental health. Andrea Yates, a former nurse, became pregnant for the first time in 1976. After giving birth to five children in the coming years, she suffered severe depression and had many depressive episodes. This led to her believing that her children needed to be saved, and that by killing them, she could rescue their eternal souls. She drowned her children one by one over the course of an hour, by holding their heads under water in their family bathtub. When called into trial, she felt that she had saved her children rather than harming them and that this action would contribute to defeating Satan.
This was one of the first public and notable cases of postpartum psychosis, which helped create dialogue on women's mental health after childbirth. The court found that Yates’ was experiencing mental illness concerns, and the trial started the conversation of mental illness in cases of murder and whether or not it would lessen the sentence or not. It also started a dialogue on women going against “maternal instinct” after childbirth and what maternal instinct was truly defined by.
Yates' case brought wide media attention to the problem of filicide, or the murder of children by their parents. Throughout history, both men and women have perpetrated this act, but study of maternal filicide is more extensive
- Antenatal depression
- Psychiatric disorders of childbirth
- Sex after pregnancy
- Breastfeeding and mental health
- "Postpartum Depression Facts". NIMH. Archived from the original on 21 June 2017. Retrieved 11 June 2017.
- Pearlstein T, Howard M, Salisbury A, Zlotnick C (April 2009). "Postpartum depression". American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 200 (4): 357–64. doi:10.1016/j.ajog.2008.11.033. PMC 3918890. PMID 19318144.
- Paulson JF (2010). "Focusing on depression in expectant and new fathers: prenatal and postpartum depression not limited to mothers". Psychiatric Times. 27 (2). Archived from the original on 2012-08-05.
- Grace SL, Evindar A, Stewart DE (November 2003). "The effect of postpartum depression on child cognitive development and behavior: a review and critical analysis of the literature". Archives of Women's Mental Health. 6 (4): 263–74. doi:10.1007/s00737-003-0024-6. PMID 14628179.
- Stewart DE, Vigod SN (January 2019). "Postpartum Depression: Pathophysiology, Treatment, and Emerging Therapeutics". Annual Review of Medicine. 70 (1): 183–196. doi:10.1146/annurev-med-041217-011106. PMID 30691372.
- Soares CN, Zitek B (July 2008). "Reproductive hormone sensitivity and risk for depression across the female life cycle: a continuum of vulnerability?". Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience. 33 (4): 331–43. PMC 2440795. PMID 18592034.
- "Perinatal Depression: Prevalence, Screening Accuracy, and Screening Outcomes". Agency for Health Care Research and Quality. Archived from the original on 2013-11-11.
- Dennis, Cindy-Lee; Fung, Kenneth; Grigoriadis, Sophie; Robinson, Gail Erlick; Romans, Sarah; Ross, Lori (July 2007). "Traditional Postpartum Practices and Rituals: A Qualitative Systematic Review". Women's Health. 3 (4): 487–502. doi:10.2217/17455057.3.4.487. ISSN 1745-5065. PMID 19804024.
- Frieder A, Fersh M, Hainline R, Deligiannidis KM (March 2019). "Pharmacotherapy of Postpartum Depression: Current Approaches and Novel Drug Development". CNS Drugs. 33 (3): 265–282. doi:10.1007/s40263-019-00605-7. PMC 6424603. PMID 30790145.
- Gaynes BN, Gavin N, Meltzer-Brody S, Lohr KN, Swinson T, Gartlehner G, et al. (February 2005). "Perinatal depression: prevalence, screening accuracy, and screening outcomes". Evidence Report/Technology Assessment (119): 1–8. doi:10.1037/e439372005-001. PMC 4780910. PMID 15760246.
- Seyfried LS, Marcus SM (August 2003). "Postpartum mood disorders". International Review of Psychiatry. 15 (3): 231–42. doi:10.1080/09540260305196. PMID 15276962.
- Spinelli MG (September 2004). "Maternal infanticide associated with mental illness: prevention and the promise of saved lives". The American Journal of Psychiatry. 161 (9): 1548–57. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.161.9.1548. PMID 15337641.
- The Boston Women's Health Book Collective: Our Bodies Ourselves, pages 489–491, New York: Touchstone Book, 2005
- WebMD: Understanding Post Partum Depression "The Basics of Postpartum Depression". Archived from the original on 2015-04-15. Retrieved 2015-04-09.
- "Depression Among Women | Depression | Reproductive Health | CDC". www.cdc.gov. Archived from the original on 2017-04-16. Retrieved 2017-04-15.
- Wisner KL, Sit DK, McShea MC, Rizzo DM, Zoretich RA, Hughes CL, et al. (May 2013). "Onset timing, thoughts of self-harm, and diagnoses in postpartum women with screen-positive depression findings". JAMA Psychiatry. 70 (5): 490–8. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2013.87. PMC 4440326. PMID 23487258.
- Morof D, Barrett G, Peacock J, Victor CR, Manyonda I (December 2003). "Postnatal depression and sexual health after childbirth". Obstetrics and Gynecology. 102 (6): 1318–25. doi:10.1016/j.obstetgynecol.2003.08.020. PMID 14662221.
- Postpartum Depression Archived 2012-02-25 at the Wayback Machine from Pregnancy Guide, by Peter J. Chen, at Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania. Reviewed last on: 10/22/2008
- Yonkers KA, Ramin SM, Rush AJ, Navarrete CA, Carmody T, March D, et al. (November 2001). "Onset and persistence of postpartum depression in an inner-city maternal health clinic system". The American Journal of Psychiatry. 158 (11): 1856–63. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.158.11.1856. PMID 11691692.
- Canadian Mental Health Association > Post Partum Depression Archived 2010-10-21 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved on June 13, 2010
- Miller LJ (February 2002). "Postpartum depression". JAMA. 287 (6): 762–5. doi:10.1001/jama.287.6.762. PMID 11851544.
- Paulson JF, Bazemore SD (May 2010). "Prenatal and postpartum depression in fathers and its association with maternal depression: a meta-analysis". JAMA. 303 (19): 1961–9. doi:10.1001/jama.2010.605. PMID 20483973.
- Field T (February 2010). "Postpartum depression effects on early interactions, parenting, and safety practices: a review". Infant Behavior & Development. 33 (1): 1–6. doi:10.1016/j.infbeh.2009.10.005. PMC 2819576. PMID 19962196.
- Laursen TM, Munk-Olsen T, Mortensen PB, Abel KM, Appleby L, Webb RT (May 2011). "Filicide in offspring of parents with severe psychiatric disorders: a population-based cohort study of child homicide" (PDF). The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 72 (5): 698–703. doi:10.4088/jcp.09m05508gre. PMID 21034682.
- Schiller, Crystal Edler; Meltzer-Brody, Samantha; Rubinow, David R. (2015). "The Role of Reproductive Hormones in Postpartum Depression". CNS Spectrums. 20 (1): 48–59. doi:10.1017/S1092852914000480. ISSN 1092-8529. PMC 4363269. PMID 25263255.
- "Postpartum depression". womenshealth.gov. 2018-04-09. Retrieved 2019-11-20.
- Kroll-Desrosiers, Aimee R.; Nephew, Benjamin C.; Babb, Jessica A.; Guilarte-Walker, Yurima; Moore Simas, Tiffany A.; Deligiannidis, Kristina M. (February 2017). "Association of peripartum synthetic oxytocin administration and depressive and anxiety disorders within the first postpartum year". Depression and Anxiety. 34 (2): 137–146. doi:10.1002/da.22599. ISSN 1520-6394. PMC 5310833. PMID 28133901.
- Goodman JH (January 2004). "Paternal postpartum depression, its relationship to maternal postpartum depression, and implications for family health". Journal of Advanced Nursing. 45 (1): 26–35. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2648.2003.02857.x. PMID 14675298.
- Nielsen Forman D, Videbech P, Hedegaard M, Dalby Salvig J, Secher NJ (October 2000). "Postpartum depression: identification of women at risk". BJOG. 107 (10): 1210–7. doi:10.1111/j.1471-0528.2000.tb11609.x. PMID 11028570.
- Paschetta E, Berrisford G, Coccia F, Whitmore J, Wood AG, Pretlove S, Ismail KM (June 2014). "Perinatal psychiatric disorders: an overview". American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 210 (6): 501–509.e6. doi:10.1016/j.ajog.2013.10.009. PMID 24113256.
- Howard LM, Molyneaux E, Dennis CL, Rochat T, Stein A, Milgrom J (November 2014). "Non-psychotic mental disorders in the perinatal period". Lancet. 384 (9956): 1775–88. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(14)61276-9. PMID 25455248.
- "NIMH » Postpartum Depression Facts". www.nimh.nih.gov. Retrieved 2019-11-20.
- Beck CT (1996). "A meta-analysis of the relationship between postpartum depression and infant temperament". Nursing Research. 45 (4): 225–30. doi:10.1097/00006199-199607000-00006. PMID 8700656.
- McCoy SJ, Beal JM, Shipman SB, Payton ME, Watson GH (April 2006). "Risk factors for postpartum depression: a retrospective investigation at 4-weeks postnatal and a review of the literature". The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association. 106 (4): 193–8. PMID 16627773.
- Stuart-Parrigon K, Stuart S (September 2014). "Perinatal depression: an update and overview". Current Psychiatry Reports. 16 (9): 468. doi:10.1007/s11920-014-0468-6. PMC 4920261. PMID 25034859.
- Mukherjee S, Coxe S, Fennie K, Madhivanan P, Trepka MJ (January 2017). "Stressful Life Event Experiences of Pregnant Women in the United States: A Latent Class Analysis". Women's Health Issues. 27 (1): 83–92. doi:10.1016/j.whi.2016.09.007. PMID 27810166.
- Mukherjee S, Coxe S, Fennie K, Madhivanan P, Trepka MJ (March 2017). "Antenatal Stressful Life Events and Postpartum Depressive Symptoms in the United States: The Role of Women's Socioeconomic Status Indices at the State Level". Journal of Women's Health. 26 (3): 276–285. doi:10.1089/jwh.2016.5872. PMID 27875058.
- Robertson-Blackmore E, Putnam FW, Rubinow DR, Matthieu M, Hunn JE, Putnam KT, et al. (October 2013). "Antecedent trauma exposure and risk of depression in the perinatal period". The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 74 (10): e942-8. doi:10.4088/JCP.13m08364. PMID 24229763.
- Benedict MI, Paine LL, Paine LA, Brandt D, Stallings R (July 1999). "The association of childhood sexual abuse with depressive symptoms during pregnancy, and selected pregnancy outcomes". Child Abuse & Neglect. 23 (7): 659–70. doi:10.1016/S0145-2134(99)00040-X. PMID 10442831.
- Lev-Wiesel R, Chen R, Daphna-Tekoah S, Hod M (January 2009). "Past traumatic events: are they a risk factor for high-risk pregnancy, delivery complications, and postpartum posttraumatic symptoms?". Journal of Women's Health. 18 (1): 119–25. doi:10.1089/jwh.2008.0774. PMID 19132883.
- Howell EA, Mora P, Leventhal H (March 2006). "Correlates of early postpartum depressive symptoms". Maternal and Child Health Journal. 10 (2): 149–57. doi:10.1007/s10995-005-0048-9. PMC 1592250. PMID 16341910.
- Aghajafari F, Letourneau N, Mahinpey N, Cosic N, Giesbrecht G (April 2018). "Vitamin D Deficiency and Antenatal and Postpartum Depression: A Systematic Review". Nutrients. 10 (4): 478. doi:10.3390/nu10040478. PMC 5946263. PMID 29649128.
- Trujillo J, Vieira MC, Lepsch J, Rebelo F, Poston L, Pasupathy D, Kac G (May 2018). "A systematic review of the associations between maternal nutritional biomarkers and depression and/or anxiety during pregnancy and postpartum" (PDF). Journal of Affective Disorders. 232: 185–203. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2018.02.004. PMID 29494902.
- Figueiredo, Bárbara; Dias, Cláudia C.; Brandão, Sónia; Canário, Catarina; Nunes-Costa, Rui (2013). "Breastfeeding and postpartum depression: state of the art review". Jornal de Pediatria. 89 (4): 332–338. doi:10.1016/j.jped.2012.12.002. ISSN 1678-4782. PMID 23791236.
- Hibbeln JR (May 2002). "Seafood consumption, the DHA content of mothers' milk and prevalence rates of postpartum depression: a cross-national, ecological analysis". Journal of Affective Disorders. 69 (1–3): 15–29. doi:10.1016/S0165-0327(01)00374-3. PMID 12103448.
- The causal role of lack of social support in PPD is strongly suggested by several studies, including O'Hara 1985, Field et al. 1985; and Gotlib et al. 1991.
- Dias CC, Figueiredo B (January 2015). "Breastfeeding and depression: a systematic review of the literature". Journal of Affective Disorders. 171: 142–54. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2014.09.022. hdl:1822/41376. PMID 25305429.
- Segre LS, O'Hara MW, Losch ME (2006). "Race/ethnicity and perinatal depressed mood". Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology. 24 (2): 99–106. doi:10.1080/02646830600643908.
- Singley D (2015). "Men's Perinatal Mental Health in the Transition to Fatherhood". Professional Psychology: Research and Practice. 46 (5): 309–319. doi:10.1037/pro0000032.
- Ross LE, Steele L, Goldfinger C, Strike C (2007). "Perinatal depressive symptomatology among lesbian and bisexual women". Archives of Women's Mental Health. 10 (2): 53–9. doi:10.1007/s00737-007-0168-x. PMID 17262172.
- Ross LE, Dennis CL (April 2009). "The prevalence of postpartum depression among women with substance use, an abuse history, or chronic illness: a systematic review". Journal of Women's Health. 18 (4): 475–86. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.507.90. doi:10.1089/jwh.2008.0953. PMID 19361314.
- Ross LE (2005). "Perinatal mental health in lesbian mothers: a review of potential risk and protective factors". Women & Health. 41 (3): 113–28. doi:10.1300/J013v41n03_07. PMID 15970579.
- Horsager R, Hoffman BL, Santiago-Muñoz PC, Rogers VL, Worley KC, Roberts SW (2014-10-15). Williams Obstetrics Study Guide (24th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill Education Medical. ISBN 9780071793278.
- Wu Q, Chen HL, Xu XJ (April 2012). "Violence as a risk factor for postpartum depression in mothers: a meta-analysis". Archives of Women's Mental Health. 15 (2): 107–14. doi:10.1007/s00737-011-0248-9. PMID 22382278.
- Western D (2013-01-01). "A Conceptual and Contextual Background for Gender-Based Violence and Depression in Women". Gender-based Violence and Depression in Women. SpringerBriefs in Social Work. New York: Springer New York. pp. 13–22. doi:10.1007/978-1-4614-7532-3_3. ISBN 978-1-4614-7531-6.
- Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association. 2013.
- "The Basics of Postpartum Depression". Archived from the original on 2015-04-15. Retrieved 2015-04-09.
- Wisner KL, Parry BL, Piontek CM (July 2002). "Clinical practice. Postpartum depression". The New England Journal of Medicine. 347 (3): 194–9. doi:10.1056/NEJMcp011542. PMID 12124409.
- American Psychiatric Association (2013), Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.), Arlington: American Psychiatric Publishing, p. 186, ISBN 978-0890425558, archived from the original on 2017-10-25
- Jones I, Chandra PS, Dazzan P, Howard LM (November 2014). "Bipolar disorder, affective psychosis, and schizophrenia in pregnancy and the post-partum period". Lancet. 384 (9956): 1789–99. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(14)61278-2. PMID 25455249.
- "Postpartum Psychosis". Royal College of Psychiatrists. 2014. Archived from the original on 24 October 2016. Retrieved 27 October 2016.
- Wesseloo R, Kamperman AM, Munk-Olsen T, Pop VJ, Kushner SA, Bergink V (February 2016). "Risk of Postpartum Relapse in Bipolar Disorder and Postpartum Psychosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis". The American Journal of Psychiatry. 173 (2): 117–27. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2015.15010124. PMID 26514657.
- Orsolini L, Valchera A, Vecchiotti R, Tomasetti C, Iasevoli F, Fornaro M, et al. (12 August 2016). "Suicide during Perinatal Period: Epidemiology, Risk Factors, and Clinical Correlates". Frontiers in Psychiatry. 7: 138. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2016.00138. PMC 4981602. PMID 27570512.
- "Screening for Depression During and After Pregnancy". American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Committee Opinion. February 2010. Archived from the original on 2014-11-02.
- Earls MF (November 2010). "Incorporating recognition and management of perinatal and postpartum depression into pediatric practice". Pediatrics. 126 (5): 1032–9. doi:10.1542/peds.2010-2348. PMID 20974776.
- Stowe ZN, Hostetter AL, Newport DJ (February 2005). "The onset of postpartum depression: Implications for clinical screening in obstetrical and primary care". American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 192 (2): 522–6. doi:10.1016/j.ajog.2004.07.054. PMID 15695997.
- Cox JL, Holden JM, Sagovsky R (June 1987). "Detection of postnatal depression. Development of the 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale". The British Journal of Psychiatry. 150 (6): 782–6. doi:10.1192/bjp.150.6.782. PMID 3651732.
- "Postpartum Depression Screening: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information". medlineplus.gov. Retrieved 2019-11-20.
- Dennis CL, Dowswell T (February 2013). Dennis C (ed.). "Psychosocial and psychological interventions for preventing postpartum depression". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2 (2): CD001134. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001134.pub3. PMID 23450532.
- PubMed Health. "Preventing postnatal depression". National Center for Biotechnology Information. Archived from the original on 23 June 2013. Retrieved 30 May 2013.
- Dennis CL, Hodnett E, Kenton L, Weston J, Zupancic J, Stewart DE, Kiss A (January 2009). "Effect of peer support on prevention of postnatal depression among high risk women: multisite randomised controlled trial". BMJ. 338: a3064. doi:10.1136/bmj.a3064. PMC 2628301. PMID 19147637. Archived from the original on 2016-04-10.
- Grigoriadis, Sophie; Robinson, Gail Erlick; Fung, Kenneth; Ross, Lori E; Chee, Cornelia (Yin Ing); Dennis, Cindy-Lee; Romans, Sarah (December 2009). "Traditional Postpartum Practices and Rituals: Clinical Implications". The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. 54 (12): 834–840. doi:10.1177/070674370905401206. ISSN 0706-7437. PMID 20047722.
- Pilkington PD, Milne LC, Cairns KE, Lewis J, Whelan TA (June 2015). "Modifiable partner factors associated with perinatal depression and anxiety: a systematic review and meta-analysis". Journal of Affective Disorders (Systematic review and meta-analysis). 178: 165–80. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2015.02.023. PMID 25837550.
- Curry SJ, Krist AH, Owens DK, Barry MJ, Caughey AB, Davidson KW, et al. (February 2019). "Interventions to Prevent Perinatal Depression: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement". JAMA. 321 (6): 580–587. doi:10.1001/jama.2019.0007. PMID 30747971.
- "Most of UK doesn't provide vital perinatal mental healthcare". OnMedica. 20 April 2018. Retrieved 17 June 2018.
- Thomson M, Sharma V (May 2017). "Therapeutics of postpartum depression". Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics. 17 (5): 495–507. doi:10.1080/14737175.2017.1265888. PMID 27892736.
- Molyneaux, Emma; Telesia, Laurence A.; Henshaw, Carol; Boath, Elizabeth; Bradley, Eleanor; Howard, Louise M. (18 April 2018). "Antidepressants for preventing postnatal depression". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 4: CD004363. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004363.pub3. ISSN 1469-493X. PMC 6494522. PMID 29669175.
- Langan R, Goodbred AJ (May 2016). "Identification and Management of Peripartum Depression". American Family Physician. 93 (10): 852–8. PMID 27175720. Archived from the original on 2017-10-25.
- McCurdy AP, Boulé NG, Sivak A, Davenport MH (June 2017). "Effects of Exercise on Mild-to-Moderate Depressive Symptoms in the Postpartum Period: A Meta-analysis". Obstetrics and Gynecology. 129 (6): 1087–1097. doi:10.1097/AOG.0000000000002053. PMID 28486363.
- Pritchett RV, Daley AJ, Jolly K (October 2017). "Does aerobic exercise reduce postpartum depressive symptoms? a systematic review and meta-analysis". The British Journal of General Practice. 67 (663): e684–e691. doi:10.3399/bjgp17X692525. PMC 5604832. PMID 28855163.
- Dennis CL, Hodnett E (October 2007). "Psychosocial and psychological interventions for treating postpartum depression". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (4): CD006116. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006116.pub2. PMID 17943888.
- Fitelson E, Kim S, Baker AS, Leight K (December 2010). "Treatment of postpartum depression: clinical, psychological and pharmacological options". International Journal of Women's Health. 3: 1–14. doi:10.2147/IJWH.S6938. PMC 3039003. PMID 21339932.
- Lau Y, Htun TP, Wong SN, Tam WS, Klainin-Yobas P (April 2017). "Therapist-Supported Internet-Based Cognitive Behavior Therapy for Stress, Anxiety, and Depressive Symptoms Among Postpartum Women: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis". Journal of Medical Internet Research. 19 (4): e138. doi:10.2196/jmir.6712. PMC 5429436. PMID 28455276.
- Molyneaux E, Howard LM, McGeown HR, Karia AM, Trevillion K (September 2014). "Antidepressant treatment for postnatal depression". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 9 (9): CD002018. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD002018.pub2. PMID 25211400.
- McDonagh MS, Matthews A, Phillipi C, Romm J, Peterson K, Thakurta S, Guise JM (September 2014). "Depression drug treatment outcomes in pregnancy and the postpartum period: a systematic review and meta-analysis". Obstetrics and Gynecology. 124 (3): 526–34. doi:10.1097/aog.0000000000000410. PMID 25004304.
- MacReady N (April 7, 2014). "Postpartum VTE Risk Highest Soon After Birth". Medscape. Archived from the original on 2017-02-06. Retrieved 2017-10-31.
- "Bench-to-bedside: NIMH research leads to brexanolone, first-ever drug specifically for postpartum depression". National Institutes of Health (NIH). 2019-03-20. Retrieved 2019-08-02.
- "Press Announcements - FDA approves first treatment for post-partum depression". www.fda.gov. Retrieved 23 March 2019.
- Commissioner, Office of the (2019-04-17). "FDA approves first treatment for post-partum depression". FDA. Retrieved 2019-08-02.
- O'Connor E, Rossom RC, Henninger M, Groom HC, Burda BU, Henderson JT, Bigler KD, Whitlock EP (January 2016). "FDA Antidepressant Drug Labels for Pregnant and Postpartum Women". PubMed Health. Archived from the original on 2017-11-05.
- "FDA Prescribing Information for Brexanolone" (PDF). Retrieved 23 March 2019.
- Cole J, Bright K, Gagnon L, McGirr A (August 2019). "A systematic review of the safety and effectiveness of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in the treatment of peripartum depression". Journal of Psychiatric Research. 115: 142–150. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2019.05.015. PMID 31129438.
- Dennis CL, Dowswell T (July 2013). "Interventions (other than pharmacological, psychosocial or psychological) for treating antenatal depression". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 7 (7): CD006795. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006795.pub3. PMID 23904069.
- Ali NS, Ali BS, Azam IS (October 2009). "Post partum anxiety and depression in peri-urban communities of Karachi, Pakistan: a quasi-experimental study". BMC Public Health. 9: 384. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-9-384. PMC 2768706. PMID 19821971.
- Tasca, Cecilia; Rapetti, Mariangela; Carta, Mauro Giovanni; Fadda, Bianca (2012-10-19). "Women And Hysteria In The History Of Mental Health". Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health : CP & EMH. 8: 110–119. doi:10.2174/1745017901208010110. ISSN 1745-0179. PMC 3480686. PMID 23115576.
- "Shedding More Light on Postpartum Depression – PR News". www.pennmedicine.org. Retrieved 2020-03-25.
- Brockington, Ian (2005), Perinatal Stress, Mood and Anxiety Disorders, Bibliotheca Psychiatrica, KARGER, pp. 1–5, doi:10.1159/000087441, ISBN 3-8055-7865-2 Missing or empty
- Margery Kempe (2015). The Book of Margery Kempe. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-968664-3. OCLC 931662216.
- Jefferies, Diana; Horsfall, Debbie (2014). "Forged by Fire: Margery Kempe's Account of Postnatal Psychosis". Literature and Medicine. 32 (2): 348–364. doi:10.1353/lm.2014.0017. ISSN 1080-6571. PMID 25693316.
- Jefferies, Diana; Horsfall, Debbie; Schmied, Virginia (February 2017). "Blurring reality with fiction: Exploring the stories of women, madness, and infanticide". Women and Birth. 30 (1): e24–e31. doi:10.1016/j.wombi.2016.07.001. ISSN 1871-5192. PMID 27444643.
- Carlson, Eric T. (1967). "Franz G. Alexander and Sheldon T. Selesnick. The History of Psychiatry: An Evaluation of Psychiatric Thought and Practice from Prehistoric Times to the Present, New York: Harper & Row, 1966, p. xvi + 471. $11.95". Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences. 3 (1): 99–100. doi:10.1002/1520-6696(196701)3:1<99::AID-JHBS2300030129>3.0.CO;2-2. ISSN 1520-6696.
- "The Project Gutenberg eBook of The Yellow Wallpaper, by Charlotte Perkins Gilman". www.gutenberg.org. Retrieved 2020-04-27.
- Quawas, Rula (May 2006). "A New Woman's Journey into Insanity: Descent and Return in The Yellow Wallpaper". Journal of the Australasian Universities Language and Literature Association. 2006 (105): 35–53. doi:10.1179/000127906805260310. ISSN 0001-2793.
- Godderis, Rebecca (2013). "A Tricky Object to Classify: Evidence, Postpartum Depression and the DSM-IV". Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences. 49 (2): 123–141. doi:10.1002/jhbs.21590. ISSN 1520-6696. PMID 23423822.
- Taylor, Verta (1996). Rock-a-by baby: Feminism, Self-help, and Postpartum Depression. New York, NY: Routledge. pp. 2–6. ISBN 978-0-415-91292-1.
- Rehman, A. U.; St Clair, D.; Platz, C. (1990). "Puerperal insanity in the 19th and 20th centuries". The British Journal of Psychiatry: The Journal of Mental Science. 156 (6): 861–865. doi:10.1192/bjp.156.6.861. ISSN 0007-1250. PMID 2207517.
- Laderman C (1987). Wives and midwives : childbirth and nutrition in rural Malaysia (1st pbk. ed.). Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 202. ISBN 9780520060364.
- McElroy A, Townsend PK, eds. (2009). "Culture, Ecology, and Reproduction". Medical Anthropology in Ecological Perspective. pp. 217–66. ISBN 978-0-7867-2740-7.
- Dennis, Cindy-Lee; Fung, Kenneth; Grigoriadis, Sophie; Robinson, Gail Erlick; Romans, Sarah; Ross, Lori (August 2007). "Traditional Postpartum Practices and Rituals: A Qualitative Systematic Review". Women's Health. 3 (4): 487–502. doi:10.2217/17455057.3.4.487. ISSN 1745-5065. PMID 19804024.
- Klainin P, Arthur DG (October 2009). "Postpartum depression in Asian cultures: a literature review". International Journal of Nursing Studies. 46 (10): 1355–73. doi:10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2009.02.012. PMID 19327773.
- Rhodes AM, Segre LS (August 2013). "Perinatal depression: a review of US legislation and law". Archives of Women's Mental Health. 16 (4): 259–70. doi:10.1007/s00737-013-0359-6. PMC 3725295. PMID 23740222.
- Cheng CY, Fowles ER, Walker LO (2006). "Continuing education module: postpartum maternal health care in the United States: a critical review". The Journal of Perinatal Education. 15 (3): 34–42. doi:10.1624/105812406X119002. PMC 1595301. PMID 17541458.
- Dennis CL, Chung-Lee L (December 2006). "Postpartum depression help-seeking barriers and maternal treatment preferences: a qualitative systematic review". Birth. 33 (4): 323–31. doi:10.1111/j.1523-536X.2006.00130.x. PMID 17150072.
- Edwards E, Timmons S (2005-01-01). "A qualitative study of stigma among women suffering postnatal illness". Journal of Mental Health. 14 (5): 471–481. doi:10.1080/09638230500271097.
- Coodley, Lauren (2002). "Commentary on Andrea Yates: Postpartum depression: Voice from a historian". Pediatric Nursing. 28.
- Fisher, Kimberly (2003). "TO SAVE HER CHILDREN'S SOULS: THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES ON ANDREA YATES AND POSTPARTUM-RELATED INFANTICIDE". Thomas Jefferson Law Review. 25.
- West, Sara G. (February 2007). "An Overview of Filicide". Psychiatry (Edgmont). 4 (2): 48–57. ISSN 1550-5952. PMC 2922347. PMID 20805899.
- Postpartum depression at Curlie
- "Depression during and after pregnancy fact sheet". Womenshealth.gov. 6 March 2009. Archived from the original on 1 March 2012.
- Postnatal Depression, information from the mental health charity The Royal College of Psychiatrists
- NHS Choices Health A-Z: Postnatal depression