Post-dural-puncture headache

From WikiProjectMed
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Post-dural-puncture headache
Other names: Post-spinal-puncture headache;[1] post-lumbar-puncture headache;[2] spinal headache
Spinal needles of the cutting variety, which are associated with a higher risk of headache
SymptomsPositional headache, neck stiffness, nausea, limb pain, hearing loss, ringing in the ears, world spinning, numbness of the scalp[3]
ComplicationsCranial nerve problems, subdural hematoma, cerebral venous sinus thrombosis[4]
Usual onsetWithin 5 days[4]
CausesSide effect of a lumbar puncture, including spinal anesthesia and epidural catheter placement[4]
Risk factorsFemale, prior headaches, low BMI[4][5]
Diagnostic methodGenerally based on symptoms[4]
Differential diagnosisMeningitis, preeclampsia, migraine, caffeine withdrawal
PreventionNon-cutting (pencil point) needle
TreatmentPain management, greater occipital nerve block, epidural blood patch[4]
PrognosisOften resolves within 2 weeks[4]
FrequencyLess than 2% to 40% of procedures[4]

Post-dural-puncture headache (PDPH), also known as spinal headache, is a complication of puncture of the dura mater, one of the membranes around the brain and spinal cord.[4] Symptoms generally include a severe headache, which is worsened by standing and relieved to some degree by lying down.[4] Other symptoms may include neck stiffness, nausea, limb pain, hearing loss, ringing in the ears, world spinning, and numbness of the scalp.[3] Complications may include cranial nerve problems, subdural hematoma, and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis.[4]

The most common cause is as a side effect of a lumbar puncture, including spinal anesthesia and during epidural catheter placement.[4] Risk factors include history of prior headaches and low BMI.[5] It generally occurs within five days; however, is rarely of immediate onset.[4][3] The underlying mechanism involves leakage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) resulting in reduced fluid levels around the brain.[4] Diagnosis is generally based on symptoms, with brain imaging if this is unclear.[4]

Using a non-cutting (pencil point) rather than a cutting spinal needle decreases the risk; however the size of the non-cutting needle does not appear to make a difference.[6] If using a cutting needle, a smaller rather then larger size is also associated with less risk.[4] Bed rest after the procedure has not been found to be useful.[4] Treatment may involve a greater occipital nerve block or epidural blood patch; though, without treatment symptoms often resolve within 2 weeks.[4] Pain may be managed with acetaminophen, NSAIDs, and caffeine; if these are not effective opioids for a short period.[4]

Post-dural-puncture headache is estimated to occur in less than 2% to 40% of procedures.[4] It occurs most frequently in those who are 20 to 40 years old.[5] Females are more commonly affected than males.[4] The condition was first described in 1899 by August Bier.[7] The epidural blood patch came into use in 1960.[5]

Signs and symptoms

PDPH typically occurs hours to days after puncture and presents with symptoms such as headache (which is mostly bi-frontal or occipital) and nausea that typically worsen when the patient assumes an upright posture. The headache usually occurs 24–48 hours after puncture but may occur as many as 12 days after.[2] It usually resolves within a few days but has been rarely documented to take much longer.[2]


PDPH is thought to result from a loss of cerebrospinal fluid[3] into the epidural space. A decreased hydrostatic pressure in the subarachnoid space then leads to traction to the meninges with associated symptoms.[citation needed]


Paraspinal open wound 10 days after surgical removal of intrathecal drug delivery system with clear discharge - CSF[8]

Differential diagnosis

Although in very rare cases the headache may present immediately after a puncture, this is almost always due to another cause such as increased intracranial pressure and requires immediate attention.[2]


Using a pencil point rather than a cutting spinal needle decreases the risk.[6] The size of the pencil point needle does not appear to make a difference, while smaller cutting needles have a low risk compared to larger ones.[6] Modern, atraumatic needles such as the Sprotte or Whitacre spinal needle leave a smaller perforation and reduce the risk for PDPH.[1] However, the evidence that atraumatic needles reduce the risk of post-dural puncture headache (PDPH) without increasing adverse events such as paraesthesia or backache is moderate-quality and further research should be done.[9]

Morphine, cosyntropin, and aminophylline appear effective in reducing post dural puncture headaches.[10] Evidence does not support the use of bed rest or intravenous fluids to prevent PDPH.[11]


Some people require no other treatment than pain medications and bed rest. A 2015 review found tentative evidence to support the use of caffeine.[12]

Pharmacological treatments as; gabapentin, pregabalin, [13] neostigmine/atropine, [14] methylxanthines, and triptans. [15] Minimally invasive procedures as; bilateral greater occipital nerve block [16] or sphenopalatine ganglion block. [17]

Persistent and severe PDPH may require an epidural blood patch. A small amount of the person's blood is injected into the epidural space near the site of the original puncture; the resulting blood clot then "patches" the meningeal leak. The procedure carries the typical risks of any epidural puncture. However, it is effective,[18] and further intervention is rarely necessary.


Estimates for the overall incidence of PDPH vary between 0.1% and 36%.[1] It is more common in younger patients (especially in the 18–30 age group), females (especially those who are pregnant), and those with a low body mass index (BMI). The low prevalence in elderly patients may be due to a less stretchable dura mater.[2] It is also more common with the use of larger diameter needles. A 2006 review reported an incidence of:

  • 12% if a needle between 0.4128 mm (0.01625 in) and 0.5652 mm (0.02225 in) is used;
  • 40% if a needle between 0.7176 mm (0.02825 in) and 0.9081 mm (0.03575 in) is used; and
  • 70% if a needle between 1.067 mm (0.0420 in) and 1.651 mm (0.0650 in) is used.[2]

On the Birmingham gauge, these correspond to the values 27–24G, 22–20G and 19–16G.[2]

PDPH is roughly twice as common in lumbar puncture than spinal anaesthesia, almost certainly due to the atraumatic needles used in spinal anaesthesia.[19]


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Jabbari A, Alijanpour E, Mir M, Bani Hashem N, Rabiea SM, Rupani MA (2013). "Post spinal puncture headache, an old problem and new concepts: review of articles about predisposing factors". Caspian Journal of Internal Medicine. 4 (1): 595–602. PMC 3762227. PMID 24009943.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 Ahmed SV, Jayawarna C, Jude E (November 2006). "Post lumbar puncture headache: diagnosis and management". Postgraduate Medical Journal. 82 (973): 713–6. doi:10.1136/pgmj.2006.044792. PMC 2660496. PMID 17099089.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Turnbull DK, Shepherd DB (November 2003). "Post-dural puncture headache: pathogenesis, prevention and treatment". British Journal of Anaesthesia. 91 (5): 718–29. doi:10.1093/bja/aeg231. PMID 14570796.
  4. 4.00 4.01 4.02 4.03 4.04 4.05 4.06 4.07 4.08 4.09 4.10 4.11 4.12 4.13 4.14 4.15 4.16 4.17 4.18 4.19 4.20 Uppal, Vishal; Russell, Robin; Sondekoppam, Rakesh; Ansari, Jessica; Baber, Zafeer; Chen, Yian; DelPizzo, Kathryn; Dîrzu, Dan Sebastian; Kalagara, Hari; Kissoon, Narayan R.; Kranz, Peter G.; Leffert, Lisa; Lim, Grace; Lobo, Clara A.; Lucas, Dominique Nuala; Moka, Eleni; Rodriguez, Stephen E.; Sehmbi, Herman; Vallejo, Manuel C.; Volk, Thomas; Narouze, Samer (15 August 2023). "Consensus Practice Guidelines on Postdural Puncture Headache From a Multisociety, International Working Group: A Summary Report". JAMA Network Open. 6 (8): e2325387. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2023.25387. Archived from the original on 23 October 2023. Retrieved 11 March 2024.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 Plewa, MC; McAllister, RK (January 2024). "Postdural Puncture Headache". StatPearls. PMID 28613675.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 Zorrilla-Vaca A, Mathur V, Wu CL, Grant MC (July 2018). "The Impact of Spinal Needle Selection on Postdural Puncture Headache: A Meta-Analysis and Metaregression of Randomized Studies". Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine. 43 (5): 502–508. doi:10.1097/AAP.0000000000000775. PMID 29659437. S2CID 4956569.
  7. Kwak, KH (April 2017). "Postdural puncture headache". Korean journal of anesthesiology. 70 (2): 136–143. doi:10.4097/kjae.2017.70.2.136. PMC 5370299. PMID 28367283.
  8. Kurnutala, Lakshmi N.; Kim, David; Sayeed, Huma; Sibai, Nabil (10 October 2015). "Persistent Spinal Headache After Removal of Intrathecal Drug Delivery System: A Case Report and Review of Literature". Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine. 5 (5): e29786. doi:10.5812/aapm.29786. ISSN 2228-7523. Archived from the original on 27 September 2022. Retrieved 16 September 2022.
  9. Arevalo-Rodriguez I, Muñoz L, Godoy-Casasbuenas N, Ciapponi A, Arevalo JJ, Boogaard S, Roqué I, Figuls M, et al. (Cochrane Anaesthesia Group) (April 2017). "Needle gauge and tip designs for preventing post-dural puncture headache (PDPH)". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 4 (12): CD010807. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD010807.pub2. PMC 6478120. PMID 28388808.
  10. Basurto Ona X, Uriona Tuma SM, Martínez García L, Solà I, Bonfill Cosp X (February 2013). "Drug therapy for preventing post-dural puncture headache". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2016 (2): CD001792. doi:10.1002/14651858.cd001792.pub3. PMC 8406520. PMID 23450533.
  11. Arevalo-Rodriguez I, Ciapponi A, Roqué i Figuls M, Muñoz L, Bonfill Cosp X (March 2016). "Posture and fluids for preventing post-dural puncture headache". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 3: CD009199. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009199.pub3. PMC 6682345. PMID 26950232.
  12. Basurto Ona X, Osorio D, Bonfill Cosp X (July 2015). "Drug therapy for treating post-dural puncture headache". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 7 (7): CD007887. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD007887.pub3. PMC 6457875. PMID 26176166.
  13. Mahoori, Alireza; Noroozinia, Heydar; Hasani, Ebrahim; Saghaleini, Hadi (2014). "Comparing the effect of pregabalin, gabapentin, and acetaminophen on post-dural puncture headache". Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia. 8 (3): 374–377. doi:10.4103/1658-354X.136436. ISSN 1658-354X. PMC 4141388. PMID 25191190. Archived from the original on 2018-06-02. Retrieved 2022-09-27.
  14. Abdelaal Ahmed Mahmoud, Ahmed; Mansour, Amr Zaki; Yassin, Hany Mahmoud; Hussein, Hazem Abdelwahab; Kamal, Ahmed Moustafa; Elayashy, Mohamed; Elemady, Mohamed Farid; Elkady, Hany W.; Mahmoud, Hatem Elmoutaz; Cusack, Barbara; Hosny, Hisham (2018-12-01). "Addition of Neostigmine and Atropine to Conventional Management of Postdural Puncture Headache: A Randomized Controlled Trial". Anesthesia & Analgesia. 127 (6): 1434–1439. doi:10.1213/ANE.0000000000003734. ISSN 0003-2999. PMID 30169405. S2CID 52142441. Archived from the original on 2022-09-27. Retrieved 2022-07-05.
  15. Shaat, Ahmed Mohamed; Abdalgaleil, Mohamed Mahmoud (2021-01-01). "Is theophylline more effective than sumatriptan in the treatment of post-dural puncture headache? A randomized clinical trial". Egyptian Journal of Anaesthesia. 37 (1): 310–316. doi:10.1080/11101849.2021.1949195. ISSN 1110-1849.
  16. Mostafa Mohamed Stohy, El-Sayed; Mohamed Mohamed El-Sayed, Mostafa; Saeed Mohamed Bastawesy, Mohamed (2019-10-01). "The Effectiveness of Bilateral Greater Occipital Nerve Block by Ultrasound for Treatment of Post-Dural Puncture Headache in Comparison with Other Conventional Treatment". Al-Azhar Medical Journal. 48 (4): 479–488. doi:10.21608/amj.2019.64954. ISSN 1110-0400.
  17. Jespersen, Mads S.; Jaeger, Pia; Ægidius, Karen L.; Fabritius, Maria L.; Duch, Patricia; Rye, Ida; Afshari, Arash; Meyhoff, Christian S. (2020-04-15). "Sphenopalatine ganglion block for the treatment of postdural puncture headache: a randomised, blinded, clinical trial". British Journal of Anaesthesia. 124 (6): 739–747. doi:10.1016/j.bja.2020.02.025. PMID 32303377.
  18. Safa-Tisseront V, Thormann F, Malassiné P, Henry M, Riou B, Coriat P, Seebacher J (August 2001). "Effectiveness of epidural blood patch in the management of post-dural puncture headache". Anesthesiology. 95 (2): 334–9. doi:10.1097/00000542-200108000-00012. PMID 11506102. S2CID 569494. Archived from the original on 2022-09-27. Retrieved 2022-07-05.
  19. Alstadhaug KB, Odeh F, Baloch FK, Berg DH, Salvesen R (April 2012). "Post-lumbar puncture headache". Tidsskrift for den Norske Laegeforening. 132 (7): 818–21. doi:10.4045/tidsskr.11.0832. PMID 22511093.

External links