Plesiomonas shigelloides

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Plesiomonas shigelloides
Scientific classification edit
Domain: Bacteria
Phylum: Pseudomonadota
Class: Gammaproteobacteria
Order: Enterobacterales
Family: Enterobacteriaceae
Genus: Plesiomonas
corrig. Habs and Schubert 1962
P. shigelloides
Binomial name
Plesiomonas shigelloides
corrig. (Bader 1954)
Habs and Schubert 1962

Pseudomonas shigelloides Bader 1954
Aeromonas shigelloides (Bader 1954) Ewing et al. 1961
Fergusonia shigelloides (Bader 1954) Sebald and Véron 1963

Plesiomonas shigelloides is a species of bacteria[1] and the only member of its genus. It is a Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium which has been isolated from freshwater, freshwater fish, shellfish, cattle, goats, swine, cats, dogs, monkeys, vultures, snakes, toads and humans.[2] It is considered a fecal coliform. P. shigelloides is a global distributed species, found globally outside of the polar ice caps.[3]

P. shigelloides has been associated with the diarrheal disease state in humans, but has been identified in healthy humans as well.[4] It can enter the body either through contact with water contaminated by fecal matter or through seafood originating from a contaminated source.[5]


a,b)Plesiomonas shigelloides (302-73 wild type strain serotype O1)

P. shigelloides was originally considered part of the family Vibrionaceae, but is generally accepted to be part of Enterobacteriaceae due to the similarity of its 5S rRNA sequence to other members of Enterobacteriaceae[6]. The rRNA sequence of P. shigelloides has been found to be most similar to Proteus mirabilis, and as a result it is now considered part of the tribe Proteeae within the family Enterobacteriaceae.[7] P. shigelloides is the only known member of its genus.



P. shigelloides is incapable of surviving in saltwater environments where the concentration of salt is greater than 4% and has been found to tolerate pH ranges between 4.5 and 9.[8][5] It grows optimally between 35°C and 39°C, and has been found to survive in the temperature range of 8°C to 45°C.[9][8] The effects of pH, salinity, temperature, turbidity, and conductivity on concentrations of P. shigelloides in freshwater conditions is not currently understood.


Some Plesiomonas strains share antigens with Shigella sonnei and Shigella flexneri and cross-reactions with Shigella antisera may occur.[10] Plesiomonas can be distinguished from Shigella in diarrheal stools by an oxidase test: Plesiomonas is oxidase positive and Shigella is oxidase negative. Plesiomonas is easily differentiated from Aeromonas sp. and other oxidase-positive organisms by standard biochemical tests.[11]


Human infection

P. shigelloides has been isolated from a wide variety of human clinical specimens including both intestinal (usually feces or rectal swabs) and extra-intestinal. It has been isolated from the feces of humans, both with and without diarrhea, and/or vomiting (gastroenteritis). Although reports have found a link between P. shigelloides and diarrhea or gastroenteritis, research has not yet determined whether this bacteria is always responsible for these conditions.[4]

Infection of other animals

Although P. shigelloides is primarily associated with the diarrheal disease state in humans, certain animals including cats and dogs have been found to frequently carry the bacterium while in a healthy state.[12] Freshwater fish can often be infected with P. shigelloides which can be lethal depending on the concentration of the bacterium in their bodies.[13]


  1. Niedziela T, Lukasiewicz J, Jachymek W, Dzieciatkowska M, Lugowski C, Kenne L (April 2002). "Core oligosaccharides of Plesiomonas shigelloides O54:H2 (strain CNCTC 113/92): structural and serological analysis of the lipopolysaccharide core region, the O-antigen biological repeating unit, and the linkage between them". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (14): 11653–63. doi:10.1074/jbc.M111885200. PMID 11796731. Archived from the original on 2019-09-13. Retrieved 2023-03-10.
  2. "Plesiomonas shigelloides", Definitions, Qeios, 2020-02-07, doi:10.32388/3gjpov, retrieved 2022-12-09
  3. MILLER, MARY L.; KOBURGER, JOHN A. (1985-05-01). "Plesiomonas shigelloides: An Opportunistic Food and Waterborne Pathogen1". Journal of Food Protection. 48 (5): 449–457. doi:10.4315/0362-028x-48.5.449. ISSN 0362-028X. PMID 30943637. Archived from the original on 2023-04-29. Retrieved 2023-03-10.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Serichantalergs, Oralak; Sornsakrin, Siriporn; McDaniel, Philip; Mason, Carl J.; Srijan, Apichai (2010-11-05). "Case-Control Study of Diarrheal Disease Etiology in a Remote Rural Area in Western Thailand". The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 83 (5): 1106–1109. doi:10.4269/ajtmh.2010.10-0367. ISSN 0002-9637. PMC 2963978. PMID 21036846.
  5. 5.0 5.1 "Plesiomonas shigelloides", International Handbook of Foodborne Pathogens, CRC Press, pp. 389–394, 2003-03-18, doi:10.1201/9780203912065-22, ISBN 978-0-429-22295-5, archived from the original on 2023-04-29, retrieved 2022-12-09
  6. MacDonell, M.T.; Colwell, R.R. (1985). "Phylogeny of the Vibrionaceae, and Recommendation for Two New Genera, Listonella and Shewanella". Systematic and Applied Microbiology. 6 (2): 171–182. doi:10.1016/s0723-2020(85)80051-5. ISSN 0723-2020. Archived from the original on 2023-04-29. Retrieved 2023-03-10.
  7. Solignac, M.; Pélandakis, M.; Rousset, F.; Chenuil, A. (1991), "Ribosomal RNA Phylogenies", Molecular Techniques in Taxonomy, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 73–85, doi:10.1007/978-3-642-83962-7_5, ISBN 978-3-642-83964-1, archived from the original on 2023-04-29, retrieved 2022-12-09
  8. 8.0 8.1 "The Genera Aeromonas and Plesiomonas", SpringerReference, Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, 2011, doi:10.1007/springerreference_3822, archived from the original on 2023-04-29, retrieved 2022-12-09
  9. Gonzalez-Rey, Carlos; Svenson, Stefan B.; Eriksson, Laila M.; Ciznar, Ivan; Krovacek, Karel (2003-08-01). "Unexpected finding of the "tropical" bacterial pathogen Plesiomonas shigelloides from lake water north of the Polar Circle". Polar Biology. 26 (8): 495–499. doi:10.1007/s00300-003-0521-0. ISSN 0722-4060. S2CID 7586212. Archived from the original on 2023-04-29. Retrieved 2023-03-10.
  10. Albert, MJ; Ansaruzzaman, M; Qadri, F; Hossain, A; Kibriya, AK; Haider, K; Nahar, S; Faruque, SM; Alam, AN (September 1993). "Characterisation of Plesiomonas shigelloides strains that share type-specific antigen with Shigella flexneri 6 and common group 1 antigen with Shigella flexneri spp. and Shigella dysenteriae 1". J Med Microbiol. 39 (3): 211–7. doi:10.1099/00222615-39-3-211. Archived from the original on 10 March 2023. Retrieved 10 March 2023.
  11. Herrington, D A; Tzipori, S; Robins-Browne, R M; Tall, B D; Levine, M M (1987). "In vitro and in vivo pathogenicity of Plesiomonas shigelloides". Infection and Immunity. 55 (4): 979–985. doi:10.1128/iai.55.4.979-985.1987. ISSN 0019-9567. PMC 260448. PMID 3557621.
  12. Arai, Teruyoshi; Ikejima, Nobuyuki; Itoh, Takeshi; Sakai, Senzo; Shimada, Toshio; Sakazaki, Riichi (1980). "A survey ofPlesiomonas shigelloidesfrom aquatic environments, domestic animals, pets and humans". Journal of Hygiene. 84 (2): 203–211. doi:10.1017/s002217240002670x. ISSN 0022-1724. PMC 2133890. PMID 7358962. Archived from the original on 2023-04-29. Retrieved 2023-03-10.
  13. Behera, B.K.; Bera, A.K.; Paria, P.; Das, A.; Parida, P.K.; Kumari, Suman; Bhowmick, S.; Das, B.K. (2018). "Identification and pathogenicity of Plesiomonas shigelloides in Silver Carp". Aquaculture. 493: 314–318. doi:10.1016/j.aquaculture.2018.04.063. ISSN 0044-8486. S2CID 90395934. Archived from the original on 2023-04-29. Retrieved 2023-03-10.

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