Pigmentary demarcation lines

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Pigmentary demarcation lines
Other names: Futcher or Voigt lines
Pigmentary demarcation lines
SymptomsBoundary lines seen in skin where the skin colour changes abruptly[1]
TypesA to H (8 types)[2]
Diagnostic methodBy its appearance[1]
Differential diagnosisPigmentary mosaicism[2]
TreatmentNot required, cossmetic[3]
FrequencyFemales>males, Japanese and black skin[1]

Pigmentary demarcation lines are harmless boundary lines seen in skin where the skin colour changes abruptly.[1] Most familiar are the lines seen on the legs and the upper arms, where the arm is darker at the back.[1]

There are eight types; A to H.[2] The lines are seen more frequently in Japanese and black skin, in pregnancy and in females in general.[1] It requires distinguishing from pigmentary mosaicism.[2] If appearing in pregnancy the lines may fade after the baby is born.[3] No treatment is required other than for cosmetic camouflage.[3]

Almost 80% of black females have at least one type of pigmentary line compared to 15% of white females, in one study.[2] The lines were first described in Japan in 1913.[2]

Sgns and symptoms

See also


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 James, William D.; Elston, Dirk; Treat, James R.; Rosenbach, Misha A.; Neuhaus, Isaac (2020). "36. Disturbances of pigmentation". Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: Clinical Dermatology (13th ed.). Edinburgh: Elsevier. pp. 862–863. ISBN 978-0-323-54753-6. Archived from the original on 2023-03-30. Retrieved 2023-03-30.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 Onalaja, Amanda A.; Taylor, Susan C. (2021). "1. Defining skin color". In Li, Becky S.; Maibach, Howard I. (eds.). Ethnic Skin and Hair and Other Cultural Considerations. Switzerland: Springer. ISBN 978-3-030-64829-9. Archived from the original on 2022-09-15. Retrieved 2023-03-30.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Society, Primary Care Dermatology. "Pigmentary demarcation lines (syn. Futcher's lines; Voigt's lines)". Primary Care Dermatology Society. Archived from the original on 21 May 2022. Retrieved 25 August 2022.

External links