Phendimetrazine

From WikiProjectMed
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Phendimetrazine
Phendimetrazine.svg
Names
Trade namesBontril, Adipost, Anorex-SR, others
  • 3,4-dimethyl-2-phenylmorpholine
Clinical data
Drug classAmphetamine[1]
Main usesObesity[1]
Side effectsPalpitations, fast heart rate, high blood pressure, agitation, trouble sleeping, headache, psychosis, diarrhea[1]
Pregnancy
category
  • C (US)
Routes of
use
By mouth
External links
AHFS/Drugs.comMonograph
US NLMPhendimetrazine
Legal
Legal status
Pharmacokinetics
BioavailabilityPeak plasma levels occur within 1 to 3 hours. Absorption is usually complete by 4 to 6 hours
MetabolismLiver
Elimination half-life19-24 hours
ExcretionUrinary elimination
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC12H17NO
Molar mass191.274 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)
  • O2C(c1ccccc1)C(N(C)CC2)C
  • InChI=1S/C12H17NO/c1-10-12(14-9-8-13(10)2)11-6-4-3-5-7-11/h3-7,10,12H,8-9H2,1-2H3 checkY
  • Key:MFOCDFTXLCYLKU-UHFFFAOYSA-N checkY
  (verify)

Phendimetrazine, sold under the brand name Bontril among others, is a medication used to treat obesity.[1] Use is only recommended for a few weeks.[1] It is used together with dieting and exercise.[1][2] It is taken by mouth.[1]

Common side effects include palpitations, fast heart rate, high blood pressure, agitation, trouble sleeping, headache, psychosis, and diarrhea.[1] Other side effects may include abuse, valvular heart disease, and pulmonary hypertension.[1] Use during pregnancy may harm the baby.[3] It is an amphetamine which works by decreasing appetite.[1]

Phendimetrazine was approved for medical use in the United States in 1975.[1] Europe voted to removal approval in 1999.[4] It is available as a generic medication.[2] In the United States 60 tablets of 35 mg costs about 10 USD as of 2021.[2] In the United States it is a Schedule III controlled substance.[5]

Medical uses

Dosage

For obesity in adults, it is taken at a dose of 35 mg immediate release two to three times per day.[1] A long acting formulation may be taken as 105 mg once per day.[1]

Pharmacology

It is a stimulant drug of the morpholine chemical class used as an appetite suppressant.[6]

Phendimetrazine functions as a prodrug to phenmetrazine; approximately 30 percent of an oral dose is converted into it. Phendimetrazine can essentially be thought of as an extended-release formulation of phenmetrazine with less potential for abuse. Phendimetrazine is an anorectic drug which acts as a norepinephrine-dopamine releasing agent (NDRA).[7]

As an amphetamine congener, its structure incorporates the backbone of methamphetamine, a potent CNS stimulant. While the addition of an N-methyl group to amphetamine significantly increases its potency and bioavailability, methylation of phenmetrazine renders the compound virtually inactive. However, phendimetrazine is a prodrug for phenmetrazine which acts as the active metabolite. Phendimetrazine possesses preferable pharmacokinetics over phenmetrazine as a therapeutic agent because its metabolization by demethylases produces a more steady and prolonged exposure of active drug within the body. This decreases abuse potential as the peak blood-concentration of active phenmetrazine that's produced from a single dose of phendimetrazine is lower than a single therapeutically equivalent dose of phenmetrazine.

Indicated as a short-term secondary treatment for exogenous obesity, phendimetrazine immediate-release 35mg tablets are typically consumed one hour before meals, not to exceed three doses daily. Phendimetrazine is also manufactured as a 105mg extended-release capsule for once daily dosing, typically consumed 30 to 60 minutes before a morning meal. Whereas the immediate-release formulation has a maximum daily dosage of 210mg (6 tablets), the extended-release capsules have a maximum daily dosage of 105mg (one capsule).

Society and culture

Phendimetrazine.jpg

Names

Adipost, Anorex-SR, Appecon, Melfiat, Obezine, Phendiet, Plegine, Prelu-2, Statobex

Legality

According to the List of Psychotropic Substances under International Control published by the International Narcotics Control Board, phendimetrazine is a Schedule III controlled substance under the Convention on Psychotropic Substances.[8]

References

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 "Phendimetrazine Monograph for Professionals". Drugs.com. Retrieved 27 October 2021.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 "Phendimetrazine Prices, Coupons & Savings Tips - GoodRx". GoodRx. Retrieved 27 October 2021.
  3. "Phendimetrazine Use During Pregnancy". Drugs.com. Retrieved 27 October 2021.
  4. "https://www.ema.europa.eu/en/documents/press-release/extraordinary-meeting-finalise-review-anorectic-agents_en.pdf" (PDF). Retrieved 27 October 2021. External link in |title= (help)
  5. "PART 1308 - Section 1308.13 Schedule III". www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov. Retrieved 27 October 2021.
  6. Landau D, Jackson J, Gonzalez G (2008). "A case of demand ischemia from phendimetrazine". Cases J. 1 (1): 105. doi:10.1186/1757-1626-1-105. PMC 2531092. PMID 18710555.
  7. Rothman RB, Baumann MH (2006). "Therapeutic potential of monoamine transporter substrates". Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry. 6 (17): 1845–59. doi:10.2174/156802606778249766. PMID 17017961. Archived from the original on 2017-03-26. Retrieved 2020-05-05.
  8. List of psychotropic substances under international control

External links

Identifiers: