Perioral dermatitis

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Perioral dermatitis
Other names: Periorificial dermatitis
Periorale Dermatitis.jpg
Small bumps around mouth and nostrils with some background redness with sparing of immediately around the lips
SpecialtyDermatology
SymptomsMultiple small red bumps and blisters around the mouth, nose, and eyes[1]
Usual onset15 to 45 year old women[1]
CausesUnknown[2]
Risk factorsTopical steroids, cosmetics, moisturizer[2]
Diagnostic methodBased on symptom[2]
Differential diagnosisRosacea, acne, lip licker's dermatitis[2]
TreatmentStopping steroids, metronidazole, tetracycline[2]
FrequencyCommon[1]

Perioral dermatitis a type of skin rash that typically occurs around the mouth, eyes, and nostrils.[2][1] Symptoms include multiple small (1–2 mm) red bumps and blisters sometimes with a scaly background.[1] Itching or burning may also be present.[2] Less commonly the genitalia may be involved.[1] Immediately around the lips is generally spared.[2]

The cause is unclear.[2] Topical or inhaled steroids are associated with the condition and moisturizers, cosmetics, fluoridated toothpaste, and sunscreen may contribute.[2][1] Diagnosis is generally based on symptoms, with a skin biopsy used in unclear cases.[2] Other conditions that may appear similar include rosacea, acne, allergic dermatitis, and lip licker's dermatitis.[2]

Treatment is typically by stopping steroid creams, cosmetics, and sunscreen.[1] Rapidly stopping steroids may initially worsen the rash and thus slowly stopping may be recommended.[1] Initial medications that may be used include metronidazole or clindamycin cream.[2] If this is insufficient doxycycline, tetracycline, or isotretinoin by mouth may be used.[2][1] It may take a few weeks or month to improve.[1][2] It can be long-term or recurring.[2]

The condition is estimated to affect 0.5-1% of people a year in the developed world.[3] Up to 90% of those affected are women between the ages of 15 and 45 years.[1][3] The term "dermatitis" is a misnomer because this is not an eczematous process.[2]

Signs and symptoms

A stinging and burning sensation with rash is often felt and noticed, but itching is less common.[4] Often the rash is steroid responsive, initially improving with application of topical steroid.[5] The redness caused by perioral dermatitis has been associated with variable level of depression and anxiety.[6]

Initially, there may be small pinpoint papules either side of the nostrils. Multiple small (1-2mm) papules and pustules then occur around the mouth, nose and sometimes cheeks. The area of skin directly adjacent to the lips, also called the vermillion border, is spared and looks normal. There may be some mild background redness and occasional scale.[7] These areas of skin are felt to be drier and therefore there is a tendency to moisturise them more frequently. Hence, they do not tolerate drying agents well and the rash can be worsened by them.[8]

Perioral dermatitis is also known by other names including rosacea-like dermatoses, periorofacial dermatitis and periorificial dermatitis. Unlike rosacea which involves mainly the nose and cheeks, there is no telangiectasia in perioral dermatitis. Rosacea also has a tendency to be present in older people. Acne can be distinguished by the presence of comedones and by its wider distribution on the face and chest.[6] There are no comedones in perioral dermatitis.[9]

Causes

The cause of perioral dermatitis is unclear.[5][10] The use of topical steroids and cosmetics have the most important role.[8] Although light exposure has been discounted as a causal factor, some reports of perioral dermatitis have been made by some patients receiving Psoralen and ultraviolet A therapy.[7]

Corticosteroids

Perioral dermatitis often happens after the use of topical steroids on the face, and is more likely to occur the greater the strength of topical steroid used.[7] Discontinuing the steroids often initially worsens the dermatitis, and dependency on the steroids can occur as people believe the steroids were initially controlling the condition.[9] Inhaled corticosteroids may also trigger perioral dermatitis.[5][10] Perioral dermatitis has a tendency to occur on the drier parts of the face and can be aggravated by drying agents including topical benzoyl peroxide, tretinoin and lotions with an alcohol base.[8]

Immunosuppressants

Reports of perioral dermatitis in renal transplant recipients treated with oral corticosteroids and azathioprine have been documented.[11]

Cosmetics

Cosmetics play an important role as causal factors for perioral dermatitis.[11] Regular generous applications of moisturising creams cause persistent hydration of the horny layer causing impairment and occlusion of the barrier function, irritation of the hair follicle, and proliferation of skin flora. Combining this with night cream and foundation significantly increases risk of perioral dermatitis 13-fold.[8][6]

Micro-organisms

Topical corticosteroids may lead to increase micro-organism density in the hair follicle.[7] The role of infectious agents such as Candida species, Demodex folliculorum, and fusiform bacteria has not been confirmed.[12]

Psychosocial

As a cosmetic impairment, perioral dermatitis is increasingly documented to have psychosocial aspects to its cause and clinical findings. Specific personality structures, professions and social habits have been implicated in the type of person the condition occurs in.[13]

Other potential causes

The condition may be potentially worsened by fluoridated toothpaste and inhaled corticosteroids.[5][10] A high prevalence of atopy has been found in those with perioral dermatitis.[7][12] The possibility of an association with the wearing of the veil in Arab women has been documented.[11]

Pathophysiology

The pathophysiology of perioral dermatitis is related to disease of the hair follicle as is now included in the ICD-11 due to be finalised in 2018.[14] Lip licker's dermatitis or perioral irritant contact dermatitis due to lip-licking is considered a separate disease categorised under irritant contact dermatitis due to saliva.[15]

Perioral dermatitis is frequently histologically similar to rosacea with the two conditions overlapping considerably. There is a lymphohistiocytic infiltrate with perifollicular localization and marked granulomatous inflammation. Occasionally, perifollicular abscesses may be present when pustules and papules are the dominant clinical findings.[4]

Diagnosis

A diagnosis of perioral dermatitis is typically made based on the characteristics of the rash. A skin biopsy is usually not required to make the diagnosis but can be helpful to rule out other skin diseases which may resemble perioral dermatitis. Extended patch testing maybe useful to also rule out allergic contact causes.[11]

Other skin diseases which may resemble perioral dermatitis include:

Treatment

Multiple treatment regimes are available and treatment algorithms have been proposed.[5]

Perioral dermatitis will usually resolve within a few months without medication, by limiting the use of irritants, including products with fragrance, cosmetics, benzoyl peroxide, occlusive sunscreens, and various acne products. This is called zero treatment. Topical corticosteroids should be stopped entirely if possible.[16][17] If the flare proves intolerable, temporary use of a less potent topical corticosteroid can often be helpful.[12]

Medication

A number of medications, either applied directly to the skin or taken by mouth, may hasten recovery. These include tetracycline, doxycycline, and erythromycin.[18] Erythromycin may be used as a cream.[16] Doxycycline is most often the first antibiotic drug choice, given at a daily dosage of 100 mg for up to a month before considering tapering off or stopping. Sometimes, longer duration of low doses of doxycycline are required.[8]

Metronidazole is less effective, but is available in a gel and can be applied twice daily. If the perioral dermatitis was triggered by a topical steroid then pimecrolimus cream has been suggested as effective in improving symptoms.[8] However, this has also been documented to cause the condition.[9]

Prognosis

Perioral dermatitis is likely to fully resolve with short courses of antibiotics but if left untreated it can persist for years and take a chronic form.[7]

Improvement with tetracyclines is usually seen after 4 days and significantly so after 2 weeks.[9]

Epidemiology

Most commonly in women between the ages of 16 and 45 years, perioral dermatitis also occurs equally in all racial and ethnic backgrounds and include children as young as three months and is increasingly reported in men. In children, females are more likely affected. It has an incidence of up to 1% in developed countries.[4]

History

The disorder appears to have made a sudden appearance with a case of ‘light sensitive seborrhoeid’ in 1957, which is said to be the first nearest description of the condition. By 1964, the condition in adults became popularly known as perioral dermatitis, but without clear clinical criteria.[10] In 1970, the condition was recognised in children. That all rashes around the mouth are perioral dermatitis has since been frequently debated.[19] That this condition should be renamed periorificial dermatitis has been proposed.[10] Darrell Wilkinson, 1919-2009, was a British dermatologist who gave one of the earliest 'definitive' descriptions of 'perioral dermatitis' and noted that the condition was not always associated with the use of fluoridated steroid creams.[8][6][20]

See also

References

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 "Periorificial dermatitis". dermnetnz.org. DermNet NZ. Retrieved 6 July 2021.
  2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 Tolaymat, L; Hall, MR (January 2021). "Perioral Dermatitis". PMID 30247843. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Perioral Dermatitis: Background, Pathophysiology, Etiology of Perioral Dermatitis". 26 June 2021. Retrieved 6 July 2021.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Kammler, Hans J (2019). "Perioral Dermatitis: Background, Pathophysiology, Epidemiology". Medscape.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 Tempark, Therdpong; Shwayder, Tor A. (Apr 2014). "Perioral dermatitis: a review of the condition with special attention to treatment options". American Journal of Clinical Dermatology. 15 (2): 101–13. doi:10.1007/s40257-014-0067-7. PMID 24623018. S2CID 9113871.(subscription required)
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 Marks, Ronald (2007). "3. Facial Skin Disorders". Facial Skin Disorders. CRC Press. p. 32-39. ISBN 9781435626225.
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 Griffiths, Christopher; Barker, Jonathan; Bleiker, Tanya; Chalmers, Robert; Creamer, Daniel (2016). "90 and 91". Rook's textbook of dermatology. Griffiths, C. (Christopher),, Barker, Jonathan, MD,, Bleiker, Tanya, 1969-, Chalmers, Robert (Robert J. G.), Creamer, Daniel (Ninth ed.). Chichester, West Sussex. ISBN 9781118441190. OCLC 930026561.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 Habif, Thomas P. (2009). "7. Acne, Rosacea, and Related Disorders". Clinical Dermatology (5th ed.). Mosby, Elsevier. pp. 253–255. ISBN 978-0-7234-3541-9.
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 9.3 Du Vivier, Anthony (2013). Atlas of clinical dermatology (4th ed.). Elsevier Saunders. pp. 609–610. ISBN 9780702034213.
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 Goldsmith, Lowell P.; Katz, Stephen I.; Gilchrest, Barbara A.; Paller, Amy S. (2012). "82. Perioral dermatitis". Fitzpatrick's Dermatology in General Medicine (8th ed.). The McGraw-Hill Companies. pp. 926–928. ISBN 978-0-07-166904-7.
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 Patterson, James W (2019). "8. The granulomatous reaction pattern". Weedon's Skin Pathology (5th ed.). Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 219. ISBN 978-0-7020-7582-7.
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 Lebwohl, Mark G., MD; Heymann, Warren R., MD; Berth-Jones, John, FRCP; Coulson, Ian H., BSc, MB, FRCP (2018). Treatment of Skin Disease: Comprehensive Therapeutic Strategies (5th ed.). pp. 619–620. ISBN 978-0-7020-6912-3.
  13. Harth, Wolfgang; Gieler, Uwe; Kusnir, Daniel; Tausk, Francisco A. (2008-11-14). Clinical Management in Psychodermatology. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 109. ISBN 9783540347187.
  14. "ICD-11 Beta Draft - Mortality and Morbidity Statistics". icd.who.int. Retrieved 2017-11-09.
  15. "ICD-11 Beta Draft - Mortality and Morbidity Statistics". icd.who.int. Retrieved 2017-11-14.
  16. 16.0 16.1 Hall, CS; Reichenberg, J (August 2010). "Evidence based review of perioral dermatitis therapy". Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia. 145 (4): 433–44. PMID 20823788.(subscription required)
  17. Oakley, Amanda (2016). "Periorificial dermatitis | DermNet New Zealand". www.dermnetnz.org. Retrieved 26 August 2020.
  18. U.S. National Library of Medicine (December 11, 2009) 'Perioral dermatitis'. Retrieved August 7, 2010.
  19. Lee, Grace; Zirwas, Matthew (July 2015). "Granulomatous Rosacea and Periorificial Dermatitis". Dermatologic Clinics. 33 (3): 447–455. doi:10.1016/j.det.2015.03.009. PMID 26143424 – via Elsevier Inc.
  20. "Munks Roll Details for Peter Edward Darrell Sheldon Wilkinson". munksroll.rcplondon.ac.uk. Retrieved 2017-11-06.