Perindopril

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Perindopril
Perindopril structure.svg
Names
Pronunciationper-in-do-pril
Trade namesCoversyl, Coversum, Aceon, others
  • (2S,3aS,7aS)-1-[(2S)-2-{[(2S)-1-ethoxy-1-oxopentan-2-yl]amino}propanoyl]-octahydro-1H-indole-2-carboxylic acid
Clinical data
Main usesHigh blood pressure, heart failure, diabetic kidney disease, coronary artery disease[1][2]
Side effectsCough, palpitations, muscle cramps, protein in the urine[1][2]
Pregnancy
category
  • US: D (Evidence of risk)
Routes of
use
By mouth
External links
AHFS/Drugs.comMonograph
Legal
Legal status
Pharmacokinetics
Bioavailability24%
Protein binding20%
MetabolismRenal
Elimination half-life1–17 hours for perindoprilat (active metabolite)
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC19H32N2O5
Molar mass368.474 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)
  • O=C(OCC)[C@@H](N[C@H](C(=O)N1[C@H](C(=O)O)C[C@@H]2CCCC[C@H]12)C)CCC
  • InChI=1S/C19H32N2O5/c1-4-8-14(19(25)26-5-2)20-12(3)17(22)21-15-10-7-6-9-13(15)11-16(21)18(23)24/h12-16,20H,4-11H2,1-3H3,(H,23,24)/t12-,13-,14-,15-,16-/m0/s1 checkY
  • Key:IPVQLZZIHOAWMC-QXKUPLGCSA-N checkY
 ☒NcheckY (what is this?)  (verify)

Perindopril is a medication used to treat high blood pressure, heart failure, diabetic kidney disease, and coronary artery disease.[1][3] It is taken by mouth.[2] Maximum effect occurs over several weeks.[1]

Common side effects include cough, palpitations, muscle cramps, and protein in the urine.[1][2] Other side effects may include angioedema, low blood pressure, and kidney failure.[1] Use during pregnancy may harm the baby.[1] A lower dose should be used in those with kidney problems.[2] It is an ACE inhibitor and works by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.[1]

Perindopril was patented in 1980 and approved for medical use in 1988.[4] It is available as a generic medication.[5] In the United Kingdom a month of medication costs the NHS about 7 pounds.[2] In the United States this amount costs about 15 USD as of 2021.[5] It is available as perindopril erbumine and perindopril arginine.[1]

Medical uses

Perindopril shares the indications of ACE inhibitors as a class, including essential hypertension, stable coronary artery disease (reduction of risk of cardiac events in patients with a history of myocardial infarction and/or revascularization), treatment of symptomatic coronary artery disease or heart failure, and diabetic nephropathy.[6]

Combination therapy

Indapamide

In combination with indapamide, perindopril has been shown to reduce the progression of chronic kidney disease and kidney complications with type 2 diabetes.[7][8] In addition, perindopril by itself demonstrated no benefit in reducing recurrent strokes when compared to placebo, the addition of low dose indapamide to perindopril therapy was associated with larger reductions in both blood pressure lowering and recurrent stroke risk in people with pre-existing cerebrovascular disease, irrespective of their blood pressure.[9] [10] There is evidence that perindopril and indapamide prevents strokes and improves mortality in people with a history of stroke, transient ischaemic attack or other cardiovascular disease.[9][11]

Amlodipine

A comparison of the combination of atenolol and bendroflumethiazide to the combination of amlodipine and perindopril found improved outcomes with the later[12]The combination of amlodipine and perindopril remains in the treatment guidelines for hypertension.[13]

Contraindications

Side effects

Side effects are mild, usually at the start of treatment; they include:

  • Cough
  • Fatigue
  • Weakness/Asthenia
  • Headache
  • Disturbances of mood and/or sleep

Less often

  • Taste impairment
  • Epigastric discomfort
  • Nausea
  • Abdominal pain
  • Rash

Reversible increases in blood urea and creatinine may be observed. Proteinuria has occurred in some patients. Rarely, angioneurotic edema and decreases in hemoglobin, red cells, and platelets have been reported.

  • Assess kidney function before and during treatment where appropriate.
  • Renovascular hypertension
  • Surgery/anesthesia
  • An analysis on the PROGRESS trial showed that perindopril has key benefits in reducing cardiovascular events by 30% in patients with chronic kidney disease defined as a CrCl <60ml/min.[14] A 2016 and 2017 meta-analysis review looking at ACE inhibitors demonstrated a reduction in cardiovascular events but also slowed the decline of renal failure by 39% when compared to placebo.[15][16] These studies included patients with moderate to severe kidney disease and those on dialysis.
  • Its renoprotective benefits of decreasing blood pressure and removing filtration pressure is highlighted in a 2016 review.[15] ACE inhibitor can result in an initial increase of serum creatinine, but mostly returns to baseline in a few weeks in majority of patients.[17] It has been suggested that increased monitoring, especially in advanced kidney failure, will minimise any related risk and improve long-term benefits.[18]
  • Use cautiously in patients with sodium or volume depletion due to potential excessive hypotensive effects of renin-angiotensin blockade causing symptomatic hypotension.[6] Careful monitoring or short-term dose reduction of diuretics prior to commencing perindopril is recommended to prevent this potential effect.[6] A diuretic may later be given in combination if necessary; potassium-sparing diuretics are not recommended in combination with perindopril due to the risk of hyperkalaemia.[6]
  • Combination with neuroleptics or imipramine-type drugs may increase the blood pressure lowering effect. Serum lithium concentrations may rise during lithium therapy.

Society and culture

Names

Perindopril is available under the following brand names among others:

  • Acertil
  • Actiprex
  • Armix
  • Idaprex
  • Coverene
  • Coverex
  • Coversum
  • Coversyl
  • Covinace
  • Indapril
  • Perindo
  • Perineva
  • Prenessa
  • Prestarium
  • Preterax
  • Prexanil
  • Prexum
  • Procaptan
  • Provinace
  • Pericard
  • Percarnil
  • Perindal
  • Repres
  • Relika

Perindopril is taken in the form of perindopril arginine (trade names include Coversyl, Coversum) or perindopril erbumine (Aceon). Both forms are therapeutically equivalent and interchangeable,[19] but the dose prescribed to achieve the same effect differs between the two forms. It is also often combined with another medication, sometimes in the same tablet (see #Combinations below).

Composition

Each tablet contains 2, 4, or 8 mg of the tert-butylamine salt of perindopril. Perindopril is also available under the trade name Coversyl Plus, containing 4 mg of perindopril combined with 1.25 mg indapamide, a thiazide-like diuretic.

In Australia, each tablet contains 2.5, 5, or 10 mg of perindopril arginine. Perindopril is also available under the trade name Coversyl Plus, containing 5 mg of perindopril arginine combined with 1.25 mg indapamide and Coversyl Plus LD, containing 2.5 mg of perindopril arginine combined with 0.625 mg indapamide.

The efficacy and tolerability of a fixed-dose combination of 4 mg perindopril and 5 mg amlodipine, a calcium channel antagonist, has been confirmed in a prospective, observational multicenter trial of 1,250 hypertensive patients.[20] A preparation of the two drugs is available commercially as Coveram.

Marketing

On 9 July 2014, the European Commission imposed fines of €427,700,000 on Laboratoires Servier and 5 companies which produce generics due to Servier's abuse of their dominant market position, in breach of European Union Competition law. Servier's strategy had included acquiring the principal source of generic production of Perindopril and entering into several pay-for-delay agreements with potential generic competitors.[21]

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 "Perindopril Monograph for Professionals". Drugs.com. Retrieved 18 July 2021.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 BNF (80 ed.). BMJ Group and the Pharmaceutical Press. September 2020 – March 2021. p. 182. ISBN 978-0-85711-369-6.CS1 maint: date format (link)
  3. "Consumer Medicine Information, GenRx Perindopril" (PDF). Clinical Resources, Medicine information for health professionals. Royal Australian College of General Practitioners. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-09-01.
  4. Fischer J, Ganellin CR (2006). Analogue-based Drug Discovery. John Wiley & Sons. p. 467. ISBN 9783527607495.
  5. 5.0 5.1 "Perindopril Prices, Coupons & Savings Tips - GoodRx". GoodRx. Retrieved 18 July 2021.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 "Australian Medicines Handbook". amhonline.amh.net.au. Retrieved 2020-05-10.
  7. on behalf of the NIKA Study Group; Netchessova, T. A.; Shepelkevich, A. P.; Gorbat, T. V. (March 2014). "Efficacy of Single-Pill Perindopril/Indapamide in Patients with Hypertension and Type 2 Diabetes". High Blood Pressure & Cardiovascular Prevention. 21 (1): 63–69. doi:10.1007/s40292-013-0036-x. ISSN 1120-9879. PMID 24357222. S2CID 20819715.
  8. Patel, Anushka (September 2007). "Effects of a fixed combination of perindopril and indapamide on macrovascular and microvascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (the ADVANCE trial): a randomised controlled trial". The Lancet. 370 (9590): 829–840. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(07)61303-8. ISSN 0140-6736. PMID 17765963. S2CID 21153924.
  9. 9.0 9.1 PROGRESS Collaborative Group (September 2001). "Randomised trial of a perindopril-based blood-pressure-lowering regimen among 6,105 individuals with previous stroke or transient ischaemic attack". Lancet. 2001 Sep 29. 358 (9287): 1033–41. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(01)06178-5. PMID 11589932. S2CID 10053225.
  10. PATS Collaborating Group (September 1995). "Post-stroke antihypertensive treatment study. A preliminary result". Chinese Medical Journal. 108 (9): 710–717. ISSN 0366-6999. PMID 8575241.
  11. Beckett, NS; Peters, R; Fletcher, AE; et al. (May 2008). "HYVET Trial" (PDF). N. Engl. J. Med. 358 (18): 1887–98. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa0801369. PMID 18378519.
  12. Dahlöf, Björn; Sever, Peter S; Poulter, Neil R; Wedel, Hans; Beevers, D Gareth; Caulfield, Mark; Collins, Rory; Kjeldsen, Sverre E; Kristinsson, Arni; McInnes, Gordon T; Mehlsen, Jesper (September 2005). "Prevention of cardiovascular events with an antihypertensive regimen of amlodipine adding perindopril as required versus atenolol adding bendroflumethiazide as required, in the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial-Blood Pressure Lowering Arm (ASCOT-BPLA): a multicentre randomised controlled trial". The Lancet. 366 (9489): 895–906. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)67185-1. PMID 16154016. S2CID 26084146.
  13. "Home | The Heart Foundation". www.heartfoundation.org.au. Retrieved 2020-05-10.
  14. Perkovic, Vlado; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Arima, Hisatomi; Gallagher, Martin; Jardine, Meg; Cass, Alan; Neal, Bruce; MacMahon, Stephen; Chalmers, John (October 2007). "Chronic Kidney Disease, Cardiovascular Events, and the Effects of Perindopril-Based Blood Pressure Lowering: Data from the PROGRESS Study". Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. 18 (10): 2766–2772. doi:10.1681/ASN.2007020256. ISSN 1046-6673. PMID 17804673.
  15. 15.0 15.1 Xie, Xinfang; Liu, Youxia; Perkovic, Vlado; Li, Xiangling; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Hou, Wanyin; Zhao, Na; Liu, Lijun; Lv, Jicheng; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Haiyan (2016-05-01). "Renin-Angiotensin System Inhibitors and Kidney and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Patients With CKD: A Bayesian Network Meta-analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials". American Journal of Kidney Diseases. 67 (5): 728–741. doi:10.1053/j.ajkd.2015.10.011. ISSN 0272-6386. PMID 26597926.
  16. Liu, Youxia; Ma, Xinxin; Zheng, Jie; Jia, Junya; Yan, Tiekun (2017-06-30). "Effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers on cardiovascular events and residual renal function in dialysis patients: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials". BMC Nephrology. 18 (1): 206. doi:10.1186/s12882-017-0605-7. ISSN 1471-2369. PMC 5493067. PMID 28666408.
  17. Garlo, Katherine G.; Bates, David W.; Seger, Diane L.; Fiskio, Julie M.; Charytan, David M. (2018-11-02). "Association of Changes in Creatinine and Potassium Levels After Initiation of Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone System Inhibitors With Emergency Department Visits, Hospitalizations, and Mortality in Individuals With Chronic Kidney Disease". JAMA Network Open. 1 (7): e183874. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2018.3874. ISSN 2574-3805. PMC 6324397. PMID 30646338.
  18. Ohkuma, Toshiaki; Jun, Min; Rodgers, Anthony; Cooper, Mark E.; Glasziou, Paul; Hamet, Pavel; Harrap, Stephen; Mancia, Giuseppe; Marre, Michel; Neal, Bruce; Perkovic, Vlado (January 2019). "Acute Increases in Serum Creatinine After Starting Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor-Based Therapy and Effects of its Continuation on Major Clinical Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: The ADVANCE Trial". Hypertension. 73 (1): 84–91. doi:10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.118.12060. hdl:10044/1/66141. ISSN 0194-911X. PMID 30571562. S2CID 58547523.
  19. "PBS For Health Professionals". Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme. Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing. 2008. Archived from the original on 2008-10-30. Retrieved 2008-09-04.
  20. Bahl VK, Jadhav UM, Thacker HP. Management of Hypertension with the Fixed Combination of Perindopril and Amlodipine in Daily Clinical Practice: Results from the STRONG Prospective, Observational, Multicenter Study. American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs May 22, 2009; 9 (3): 135-42 Link text
  21. "Antitrust: Commission fines Servier and five generic companies for curbing entry of cheaper versions of cardiovascular medicine". European Commission. 9 July 2014.

Further reading

External links

Identifiers:

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