|Trade names||Catenulin, Aminosidine, others|
|Other names||monomycin, aminosidine|
|By mouth, intramuscular, topical|
|Defined daily dose||3 gram|
|Bioavailability||Poorly absorbed in the GI tract|
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||713.71 g·mol−1|
|3D model (JSmol)|
|(what is this?)|
Paromomycin is an antimicrobial used to treat a number of parasitic infections including amebiasis, giardiasis, leishmaniasis, and tapeworm infection. It is a first-line treatment for amebiasis or giardiasis during pregnancy. Otherwise it is generally a second line treatment option. It is used by mouth, applied to the skin, or by injection into a muscle.
Common side effects when taken by mouth include loss of appetite, vomiting, abdominal pain, and diarrhea. When applied to the skin side effects include itchiness, redness, and blisters. When given by injection there may be fever, liver problems, or hearing loss. Use during breastfeeding appears to be safe. Paromomycin is in the aminoglycoside family of medications and causes microbe death by stopping the creation of bacterial proteins.
Paromomycin was discovered in the 1950s from a type of streptomyces and came into medical use in 1960. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the safest and most effective medicines needed in a health system. Paromomycin is available as a generic medication. In India the injectable form is about 4.19 to 8.38 pounds for a course of treatment as of 2007. In the United States a typical course of treatment is more than US$200 as of 2015.
It is an antimicrobial used to treat intestinal parasitic infections such as cryptosporidiosis and amoebiasis, and other diseases such as leishmaniasis. Paromomycin was demonstrated to be effective against cutaneous leishmaniasis in clinical studies in the USSR in the 1960s, and in trials with visceral leishmaniasis in the early 1990s.
The route of administration is intramuscular injection and capsule. Paromomycin topical cream with or without gentamicin is an effective treatment for ulcerative cutaneous leishmaniasis, according to the results of a phase-3, randomized, double-blind, parallel group–controlled trial.
Pregnancy and breastfeeding
There is limited data regarding the safety of taking paromomycin while breastfeeding but because the drug is poorly absorbed minimal amounts of drug will be secreted in breastmilk.
There is limited evidence that paromomycin can be used in persons coinfected with HIV and Cryptosporidium. A few small trials have showed a reduction in oocyst shedding after treatment with paromomycin.
The most common adverse effects associated with paromomycin sulfate are abdominal cramps, diarrhea, heartburn, nausea, and vomiting. Long-term use of paromomycin increases the risk for bacterial or fungal infection. Signs of overgrowth include white patches in the oral cavities. Other less common adverse events include myasthenia gravis, kidney damage, enterocolitis, malabsorption syndrome, eosinophilia, headache, hearing loss, ringing in the ear, itching, severe dizziness, and pancreatitis.
Paromomycin belongs to the aminoglycoside drug class and therefore are toxic to the kidneys and to ears. These toxicities are additive and are more likely to occur when used with other drugs that cause ear and kidney toxicity. Concurrent use of foscarnet increases the risk of kidney toxicity. Concurrent use of colistimethate and paromomycin can cause a dangerous slowing of breathing known as respiratory depression, and should be done with extreme caution if necessary. When used with systemic antibiotics such as paromomycin, the cholera vaccine can cause an immune response. Use with strong diuretics, which can also harm hearing, should be avoided. Paromomycin may have dangerous reactions when used with the paralytic succinylcholine by increasing its neuromuscular effects.
There are no known food or drink interactions with paromomycin.
Paromomycin is a protein synthesis inhibitor in nonresistant cells by binding to 16S ribosomal RNA. This broad-spectrum antibiotic soluble in water, is very similar in action to neomycin. Antimicrobial activity of paromomycin against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus has been shown. Paromomycin works as an antibiotic by increasing the error rate in ribosomal translation. Paromomcyin binds to a RNA loop, where residues A1492 and A1493 are usually stacked, and expels these two residues. These two residues are involved in detection of correct Watson-Crick pairing between the codon and anti codon. When correct interactions are achieved, the binding provides energy to expel the two residues. Paromocyin binding provides enough energy for residue expulsion and thus results in the ribosome incorporating the incorrect amino acid into the nascent peptide chain.
GI absorption is poor. Any obstructions or factors which impair GI motility may increase the absorption of the drug from the digestive tract. In addition, any structural damage, such as lesions or ulcerations, will tend to increase drug absorption.
For intramuscular (IM) injection, the absorption is rapid. Paromomycin will reach peak plasma concentration within one hour following IM injection. The in-vitro and in-vivo activities parallel those of neomycin.
Information not available.
Almost 100% of the oral dose is eliminated unchanged via feces. Any absorbed drug will be excreted in urine.
Paromomycin was discovered in the 1950s amongst the secondary metabolites of a variety of Streptomyces then known as Streptomyces krestomuceticus, now known as Streptomyces rimosus. It came into medical use in 1960.
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