Papule

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Papule
Fibrous papule of the nose 01.jpg
Fibrous papule of the nose
Pronunciation
SpecialtyDermatology[2]
SymptomsSmall, well-defined bump in skin[2]

A papule is a small, well-defined bump in the skin.[2] It may have a rounded, pointed or flat top, and may have a dip.[2] It can appear with a stalk, be thread-like or look warty.[3] It can be soft or firm and its surface may be rough or smooth.[2] Some have crusts or scales.[2] A papule can be flesh colored, yellow, white, brown, red, blue or purplish.[4] There may be just one or many, and they may occur irregularly in different parts of the body or appear in clusters.[2] It does not contain fluid but may progress to a pustule or vesicle.[2] A papule is smaller than a nodule; it can be as tiny as a pinhead and is typically less than 1 cm in width, according to some sources,[2][3] and 0.5 cm according to others.[4] If filled with blood vessels it is termed a small haemangioma.[5]

Its color might indicate its cause, such as white in milia, red in eczema, yellowish in xanthoma and black in melanoma.[2] They may open when scratched and become infected and crusty.[6]

Definition

Papule and plaque

A papule is a small, well-defined bump in the skin.[2] It is smaller than a nodule; it can be as tiny as a pinhead and is typically less than 1 cm in width, according to some sources,[2][3] and 0.5 cm according to others.[4]

Presentation

A papule may have a rounded, pointed or flat top, and may have a dip.[2] It can be polygonal but is never rectangular or square.[7] It can appear with a stalk, be thread-like or look warty.[3] Ulceration, oozing, bleeding or thin blood vessels may be present in a papule.[7] It can be soft or firm and its surface may be rough or smooth.[2] Some have crusts or scales.[2] A papule can be flesh colored, yellow, white, brown, black, blue or purplish, or varying shades of red.[4][7] The intensity of redness might indicate how long the papule has been present.[7] There may be just one or many, and they may occur irregularly in different parts of the body or appear in clusters.[2] It does not contain fluid but may progress to a pustule or vesicle.[2]

Differential diagnosis

Angiofibromas are papules, types of which include the usually solitary fibrous papule of the nose and periungual angiofibroma, and multiple in pearly penile papules, and the facial angiofibromas as may be seen in tuberous sclerosis.[8] Other conditions presenting with papules include condyloma acuminatum, squamous papilloma, basal cell carcinoma and parulis.[9]

Papules with scale on the palms and soles may occur in secondary syphilis, psoriasis, eczema, tinea manuum, mycosis fungoides.[7] In lichen planus papules may be itchy, flat-topped, polygonal, purplish with white streaks, and can be solitary, or occur in clusters or in a line.[7]

See also

References

  1. "Papule definition and meaning - Collins English Dictionary". Archived from the original on 2021-04-29. Retrieved 2021-09-19.
  2. 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 James, William D.; Elston, Dirk; Treat, James R.; Rosenbach, Misha A.; Neuhaus, Isaac (2020). "2. Cutaneous signs and diagnosis". Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: Clinical Dermatology (13th ed.). Elsevier. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-323-54753-6. Archived from the original on 2021-10-17. Retrieved 2021-10-16.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Oakley, Amanda. "Terminology in dermatology". dermnetnz.org. Archived from the original on 5 August 2016. Retrieved 20 September 2021.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 Dinulos, James G. H. (2019). "1. Principles of diagnosis and anatomy". Habif' Clinical Dermatology (7th ed.). Elsevier. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-323-61269-2. Archived from the original on 2021-09-23. Retrieved 2021-09-21.
  5. Morris-Jones, Rachael (2019). "1. Introduction". In Morris-Jones, Rachael (ed.). ABC of Dermatology (7th ed.). Hoboken: Wiley Blackwell. p. 3. ISBN 978-1-119-48899-6. Archived from the original on 2022-05-13. Retrieved 2022-05-15.
  6. "papule" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary
  7. 7.0 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 Allen, Herbert B. (2010). "1. Papulosquamous diseases". Dermatology Terminology. Philadelphia: Springer. pp. 1–13. ISBN 978-1-84882-839-1. Archived from the original on 2021-09-23. Retrieved 2021-09-22.
  8. Paller, Amy S.; Mancini, Anthony J. (2020). "9. Cutaneous tumors and tumor syndromes". Clinical Pediatric Dermatology: A Textbook of Skin Disorders of Childhood and Adolescence (6th ed.). St Louis, Missouri: Elsevier. p. 251. ISBN 978-0-323-54988-2. Archived from the original on 2021-09-25. Retrieved 2021-10-18.
  9. Langlais, Robert P.; Miller, Craig S.; Gehrig, Jill S. (2017). "18. Diagnostic and descritive terminology: macule, patch, erosion, ulcer". Color Atlas of Common Oral Diseases, Enhanced Edition (5th ed.). Burlington: Jones & Bartlett Learning. p. 22. ISBN 978-1-284-24098-6. Archived from the original on 2022-04-17. Retrieved 2022-04-17.

External links