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|Intraductal papilloma of breast, H&E, 10x|
A papilloma (plural papillomas or papillomata) (papillo- + -oma) is a benign epithelial tumor growing exophytically (outwardly projecting) in nipple-like and often finger-like fronds. In this context, papilla refers to the projection created by the tumor, not a tumor on an already existing papilla (such as the nipple).
When used without context, it frequently refers to infections (squamous cell papilloma) caused by human papillomavirus (HPV), such as warts. Human papillomavirus infection is a major cause of cervical cancer, vulvar cancer, vaginal cancer, penis cancer, anal cancer, and HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancers. Most viral warts are caused by human papillomavirus infection (HPV), of which there are nearly 200 distinct human papillomaviruses (HPVs), and many HPV types are carcinogenic. There are, however, a number of other conditions that cause papilloma, as well as many cases in which there is no known cause.
Signs and symptoms
A benign papillomatous tumor is derived from epithelium, with cauliflower-like projections that arise from the mucosal surface. It may appear white or normal colored. It may be pedunculated or sessile. The average size is between 1–5 cm. Neither sex is significantly more likely to develop them. The most common site is the palate-uvula area followed by tongue and lips. Durations range from weeks to 10 years.
There is no evidence that papillomas are premalignant.
Note: differentiation is done accurately by microscopic examination only.
With conservative surgical excision, recurrence is rare.
- Skin tag
- Inverted papilloma
- Squamous cell papilloma
- Urothelial papilloma
- Intraductal papilloma of breast
- "papilloma" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary
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- "Human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical cancer". WHO. June 2016. Archived from the original on 5 August 2016.
- Anjum, Fatima; Zohaib, Jamal (4 December 2020). "Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma". Definitions. StatPearls (Updated ed.). Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing. doi:10.32388/G6TG1L. PMID 33085415. S2CID 229252540. Bookshelf ID: NBK563268. Retrieved 7 February 2021 – via NCBI.
- "Warts: Overview" (Updated ed.). U.S. National Library of Medicine. 7 November 2019 [30 July 2014]. Archived from the original on 10 September 2017. Retrieved 7 February 2021. Cite journal requires
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