|Pronunciation||nye" ta zox' a nide|
|Trade names||Alinia, Nizonide, others|
|Main uses||Cryptosporidiosis, giardiasis, amebiasis, isosporiasis, tapeworms, flukes, roundworms|
|Side effects||Abdominal pain, nausea, headache, abnormally colored urine|
|Typical dose||500 mg BID|
|Protein binding||Nitazoxanide: ?|
Tizoxanide: over 99%
|Metabolism||Rapidly hydrolyzed to tizoxanide|
|Elimination half-life||3.5 hours|
|Excretion||Kidney, bile duct, and fecal|
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||307.28 g·mol−1|
|3D model (JSmol)|
Nitazoxanide, sold under the brand name Alinia among others, is a medication that is used to treat various protozoa and parasitic worms. This includes cryptosporidiosis, giardiasis, amebiasis, isosporiasis, and certain tapeworms, flukes, and roundworms. It is taken by mouth.
Common side effects include abdominal pain, nausea, headache, and abnormally colored urine. Safety in pregnancy is unclear. It is a thiazolide and is believed to work by blocking pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase.
Nitazoxanide was approved for medical use in the United States in 2002. It was approved as a generic medication in 2020. In the United States 6 tablets of 500 mg costs about 240 USD as of 2021. Research is ongoing as of 2021 with respect to its use for influenza.
Nitazoxanide is an effective first-line treatment for infection by Blastocystis species and is indicated for the treatment of infection by Cryptosporidium parvum or Giardia lamblia in immunocompetent adults and children. It is also an effective treatment option for infections caused by other protozoa and helminths (e.g., Entamoeba histolytica, Hymenolepis nana, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Cyclospora cayetanensis).
Nitazoxanide has also been shown to have in vitro antiparasitic activity and clinical treatment efficacy for infections caused by other protozoa and helminths; evidence as of 2014[update] suggested that it possesses efficacy in treating a number of viral infections as well.
In adults it is often used at 500 mg twice per day.
The side effects of nitazoxanide do not significantly differ from a placebo treatment for giardiasis; these symptoms include stomach pain, headache, upset stomach, vomiting, discolored urine, excessive urinating, skin rash, itching, fever, flu syndrome, and others. Nitazoxanide does not appear to cause any significant adverse effects when taken by healthy adults.
Information on nitazoxanide overdose is limited. Oral doses of 4 grams in healthy adults do not appear to cause any significant adverse effects. In various animals, the oral LD50 is higher than 10 g/kg.
Due to the exceptionally high plasma protein binding (>99.9%) of nitazoxanide's metabolite, tizoxanide, the concurrent use of nitazoxanide with other highly plasma protein-bound drugs with narrow therapeutic indices (e.g., warfarin) increases the risk of drug toxicity. In vitro evidence suggests that nitazoxanide does not affect the CYP450 system.
The anti-protozoal activity of nitazoxanide is believed to be due to interference with the pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR) enzyme-dependent electron transfer reaction which is essential to anaerobic energy metabolism. PFOR inhibition may also contribute to its activity against anaerobic bacteria.
It has also been shown to have activity against influenza A virus in vitro. The mechanism appears to be by selectively blocking the maturation of the viral hemagglutinin at a stage preceding resistance to endoglycosidase H digestion. This impairs hemagglutinin intracellular trafficking and insertion of the protein into the host plasma membrane.
Nitazoxanide modulates a variety of other pathways in vitro, including glutathione-S-transferase and glutamate-gated chloride ion channels in nematodes, respiration and other pathways in bacteria and cancer cells, and viral and host transcriptional factors.
Following oral administration, nitazoxanide is rapidly hydrolyzed to the pharmacologically active metabolite, tizoxanide, which is 99% protein bound. Tizoxanide is then glucuronide conjugated into the active metabolite, tizoxanide glucuronide. Peak plasma concentrations of the metabolites tizoxanide and tizoxanide glucuronide are observed 1–4 hours after oral administration of nitazoxanide, whereas nitazoxanide itself is not detected in blood plasma.
Roughly 2⁄3 of an oral dose of nitazoxanide is excreted as its metabolites in feces, while the remainder of the dose excreted in urine. Tizoxanide is excreted in the urine, bile and feces. Tizoxanide glucuronide is excreted in urine and bile.
Nitazoxanide is the prototype member of the thiazolides, which is a drug class of structurally-related broad-spectrum antiparasitic compounds. Nitazoxanide is a light yellow crystalline powder. It is poorly soluble in ethanol and practically insoluble in water.
Nitazoxanide was originally discovered in the 1980s by Jean-François Rossignol at the Pasteur Institute. Initial studies demonstrated activity versus tapeworms. In vitro studies demonstrated much broader activity. Dr. Rossignol co-founded Romark Laboratories, with the goal of bringing nitazoxanide to market as an anti-parasitic drug. Initial studies in the USA were conducted in collaboration with Unimed Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Marietta, GA) and focused on development of the drug for treatment of cryptosporidiosis in AIDS. Controlled trials began shortly after the advent of effective anti-retroviral therapies. The trials were abandoned due to poor enrollment and the FDA rejected an application based on uncontrolled studies.
Subsequently, Romark launched a series of controlled trials. A placebo-controlled study of nitazoxanide in cryptosporidiosis demonstrated significant clinical improvement in adults and children with mild illness. Among malnourished children in Zambia with chronic cryptosporidiosis, a three-day course of therapy led to clinical and parasitologic improvement and improved survival. In Zambia and in a study conducted in Mexico, nitazoxanide was not successful in the treatment of cryptosporidiosis in advanced infection with human immunodeficiency virus at the doses used. However, it was effective in patients with higher CD4 counts. In treatment of giardiasis, nitazoxanide was superior to placebo and comparable to metronidazole. Nitazoxanide was successful in the treatment of metronidazole-resistant giardiasis. Studies have suggested efficacy in the treatment of cyclosporiasis, isosporiasis, and amebiasis. Recent studies have also found it to be effective against beef tapeworm(Taenia saginata).
Society and culture
Nitazoxanide is sold under the brand names Adonid, Alinia, Allpar, Annita, Celectan, Colufase, Daxon, Dexidex, Diatazox, Kidonax, Mitafar, Nanazoxid, Parazoxanide, Netazox, Niazid, Nitamax, Nitax, Nitaxide, Nitaz, Nizonide, NT-TOX, Pacovanton, Paramix, Toza, and Zox.
As of September 2015[update], nitazoxanide was in phase 3 clinical trials for the treatment influenza due to its inhibitory effect on a broad range of influenza virus subtypes and efficacy against influenza viruses that are resistant to neuraminidase inhibitors like oseltamivir. Nitazoxanide is also being researched as a potential treatment for COVID-19, chronic hepatitis B, chronic hepatitis C, rotavirus and norovirus gastroenteritis.
Romark initially decided to focus on the possibility of treating chronic hepatitis C with nitazoxanide. The drug garnered interest from the hepatology community after three phase II clinical trials involving the treatment of hepatitis C with nitazoxanide produced positive results for treatment efficacy and similar tolerability to placebo without any signs of toxicity. A meta-analysis from 2014 concluded that the previous held trials were of low-quality and with held with a risk of bias. The authors concluded that more randomized trials with low risk of bias are needed to determine if Nitazoxanide can be used as an effective treatment for chronic hepatitis C patients.
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Blastocystis is one of the most common intestinal protists of humans. ... A recent study showed that 100% of people from low socio-economic villages in Senegal were infected with Blastocystis sp. suggesting that transmission was increased due to poor hygiene sanitation, close contact with domestic animals and livestock, and water supply directly from well and river . ...
Table 2: Summary of treatments and efficacy for Blastocystis infection
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Nitazoxanide: intestinal amoebiasis: 500 mg po bid x 3 days
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new anthelmintic alternatives such as tribendimidine and Nitazoxanide have proved to be safe and effective against A. lumbricoides and other soil-transmitted helminthiases in human trials.
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Nitazoxanide, a 5-nitrothiazole derivative with broad-spectrum activity against helminths and protozoans, has been shown to be effective against C cayetanensis, with an efficacy 87% by the third dose (first, 71%; second 75%). Three percent of patients had minor side effects.
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Nitazoxanide is effective in the treatment of protozoal and helminthic infections ... Nitazoxanide is a first-line choice for the treatment of illness caused by C. parvum or G. lamblia infection in immunocompetent adults and children, and is an option to be considered in the treatment of illnesses caused by other protozoa and/or helminths.
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Nitazoxanide (NTZ) is a redox-active nitrothiazolyl-salicylamideCS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
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Oral nitazoxanide is an available, approved antiparasitic agent (e.g., against cryptosporidium, giardia) with established safety profiles. Recently, it has been shown (together with its active metabolite tizoxanide) to possess anti-influenza activity by blocking haemagglutinin maturation/trafficking, and acting as an interferon-inducer . ... A large, multicenter, Phase 3 randomized-controlled trial comparing nitazoxanide, oseltamivir, and their combination in uncomplicated influenza is currently underway (NCT01610245).
Figure 1: Molecular targets and potential antiviral treatments against influenza virus infection
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