|Trade names||Niclocide, Fenasal, Phenasal, others|
|Defined daily dose||2 grams|
|AHFS/Drugs.com||Micromedex Detailed Consumer Information|
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||327.12 g·mol−1|
|3D model (JSmol)|
|Melting point||225 to 230 °C (437 to 446 °F)|
|(what is this?)|
Niclosamide, sold under the brand name Niclocide among others, is a medication used to treat tapeworm infestations. This includes diphyllobothriasis, hymenolepiasis, and taeniasis. It is not effective against other worms such as pinworms or roundworms. It is taken by mouth.
Side effects include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and itchiness. It may be used during pregnancy and appears to be safe for the baby. Niclosamide is in the anthelmintic family of medications. It works by blocking the uptake of sugar by the worm.
Niclosamide was discovered in 1958. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. The wholesale cost in the developing world is about 0.24 USD for a course of treatment. It is not commercially available in the United States. It is effective in a number of other animals.
The defined daily dose is 2 grams by mouth. For T. saginata, T. solium, or D. latum the dose is 2 grams once in those over the age of six, while in those 2 to 6 years old 1 gram is used, and in those under 2 years old the dose is 500 mg. For H. nana the initial dose is the same, followed by six more days of treatment at half the initial dose.
Side effects include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, constipation, and itchiness. Rarely, dizziness, skin rash, drowsiness, perianal itching, or an unpleasant taste occur. For some of these reasons, praziquantel is a preferable and equally effective treatment for tapeworm infestation.
Mechanism of action
Niclosamide's metabolic effects are relevant to wide ranges of organisms, and accordingly it has been applied as a control measure to organisms other than tapeworms. For example, it is an active ingredient in some formulations such as Bayluscide for killing lamprey larvae, as a molluscide, and as a general purpose piscicide in aquaculture. Niclosamide has a short half-life in water in field conditions; this makes it valuable in ridding commercial fish ponds of unwanted fish; it loses its activity soon enough to permit re-stocking within a few days of eradicating the previous population. Researchers have found that niclosamide is effective in killing invasive zebra mussels in cool waters.
Niclosamide is being studied in a number of types of cancer. Niclosamide along with oxyclozanide, another anti-tapeworm drug, was found in a 2015 study to display "strong in vivo and in vitro activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)".
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