Ngari virus

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Ngari virus
Virus classification e
(unranked): Virus
Realm: Riboviria
Kingdom: Orthornavirae
Phylum: Negarnaviricota
Class: Ellioviricetes
Order: Bunyavirales
Family: Peribunyaviridae
Genus: Orthobunyavirus
Ngari virus

Ngari virus (NRIV)[1] is a single-stranded, negative sense, tri-segmented RNA virus. It is a subtype of the Bunyamwera virus (BUNV) and closely related to the Batai virus (BATV). NRIV is the only reassortment virus of the subtypes. There is evidence suggesting that NRIV stems from a naturally occurring reassortment event in which a host was infected with both BUNV and BATV.[1] It is commonly found in areas that experience an outbreak of Rift Valley fever virus (RFVF)[2]


The primary form of transmission of the virus to humans is through mosquitos.[3] Although mosquitos are the primary source, the virus was also detected in Ixodid ticks found on cattle in Guinea but there is no evidence indicating that they are able to spread the virus.[4] Furthermore, the virus has previously been found within goats and sheep in Mauritania.[5]


Geographic locations of reports of Ngari blue dots, and other viruses across Europe and Africa from literature or ProMED-Mail

The virus has been reported primarily in African countries which include Mauritania, Senegal, Sudan, Central African Republic, DRC, Kenya, Somalia, South Africa, and Madagascar.[3]

Effects in Humans

Humans that are infected by the virus typically develop severe or fatal hemorrhagic fever.[1]


Ngari virus was first isolated in Senegal in 1979 from Aedes simpsoni mosquitos.[3]


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Gerrard, Sonja R.; Li, Li; Barrett, Alan D.; Nichol, Stuart T. (August 2004). "Ngari virus is a Bunyamwera virus reassortant that can be associated with large outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever in Africa". Journal of Virology. 78 (16): 8922–8926. doi:10.1128/JVI.78.16.8922-8926.2004. ISSN 0022-538X. PMC 479050. PMID 15280501.
  2. Cichon, Nicole; Barry, Yahya; Stoek, Franziska; Diambar, Abdellah; Ba, Aliou; Ziegler, Ute; Rissmann, Melanie; Schulz, Jana; Haki, Mohamed L.; Höper, Dirk; Doumbia, Baba A. (2021). "Co-circulation of Orthobunyaviruses and Rift Valley Fever Virus in Mauritania, 2015". Frontiers in Microbiology. 12: 3524. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2021.766977. ISSN 1664-302X. PMC 8739971. PMID 35003005.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 Dutuze, M. Fausta; Nzayirambaho, Manassé; Mores, Christopher N.; Christofferson, Rebecca C. (2018). "A Review of Bunyamwera, Batai, and Ngari Viruses: Understudied Orthobunyaviruses With Potential One Health Implications". Frontiers in Veterinary Science. 5: 69. doi:10.3389/fvets.2018.00069. ISSN 2297-1769. PMC 5906542. PMID 29707545.
  4. Makenov, M. T.; Toure, A. H.; Bayandin, R. B.; Gladysheva, A. V.; Shipovalov, A. V.; Boumbaly, S.; Sacko, N.; Korneev, M. G.; Yakovlev, S. A.; Zhurenkova, O. B.; Grigoreva, YaE (2020-11-13). "Ngari virus (Orthobunyavirus, Peribunyaviridae) in ixodid ticks collected from cattle in Guinea": 2020.11.10.20228924. doi:10.1101/2020.11.10.20228924. S2CID 226307777. Archived from the original on 2022-08-17. Retrieved 2022-06-14. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  5. Eiden, Martin; Vina-Rodriguez, Ariel; Mamy, Bezeid O. El; Isselmou, Katia; Ziegler, Ute; Höper, Dirk; Jäckel, Susanne; Balkema-Buschmann, Anne; Unger, Hermann; Doumbia, Baba; Groschup, Martin H. (2014). "Ngari Virus in Goats during Rift Valley Fever Outbreak, Mauritania, 2010 - Volume 20, Number 12—December 2014 - Emerging Infectious Diseases journal - CDC". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 20 (12): 2174–2176. doi:10.3201/eid2012.140787. PMC 4257808. PMID 25419696. Archived from the original on 2022-06-20. Retrieved 2022-06-14.