Narcology (Russian: наркология: narkológija), from Russian нарко- (narco-, pertaining to narcotics, illicit drugs) + -логия (-logy, "branch of study") is a subspecialty of psychiatry dealing with the prevention, treatment, diagnosis, social care and recovery of drug-dependent persons. The study and science of phenomena of "narcomania",[note 1] "toxicomania",[note 2] alcohol use disorder, and its ætiology, pathogenesis, and clinical aspects. The term for a practitioner of narcology is narcologist. In the United States, the comparable terms are "addiction medicine" and "addictionist".
Narcology was introduced as a separated medical specialty in the Soviet Union during the early 1960s through the 1970s. The term "narcology" is used especially in the countries of the former Soviet Union, including Russia.
Human right violations in Russia
United Nations bodies and human rights organizations have documented human rights violations against people who use drugs in Russia, including the absolute prohibition on opioid substitution therapy and methadone maintenance treatment, the use of unscientific methods in the treatment of addictive disorders, the absence of drug dependence treatment for people with serious medical conditions.
- Stoimenov, Y. A.; Stoimenova, M. Y.; Koeva, P. Y. (2003). Психиатрический энциклопедический словарь [Psychiatric Encyclopaedic Dictionary] (in Russian). Киев: МАУП. p. 565. ISBN 966-608-306-X.
- Elovich, Richard; Drucker, Ernest (2008). "On drug treatment and social control: Russian narcology's great leap backwards". Harm Reduction Journal. 5 (1): 23. doi:10.1186/1477-7517-5-23. ISSN 1477-7517. PMC 2474597.
- '"Narcomania"' (наркомания: narkománija: from "narcotic" + "μανία" [madness]) is a Russian narcological term for "drug addiction" or "drug abuse" (the term usually refers to illicit, forbidden by law drugs).
- '"Toxicomania'" (токсикомания: toksikománija: from "toxic" + "μανία" [madness]) is narcological term for "inhalant user", "volatile substances", "benzine", "glue", etc. (related to only non-forbidden drugs)
- Robert Jean Campbell; Director Gracie Square Hospital and Clinical Professor of Psychiatry Robert Jean Campbell, M.D. (2004). Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary. Oxford University Press, USA. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-19-515221-0.
- Slee (7 October 2009). Slee's Health Care Terms. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-7637-8903-9.
- Гофман А. Г. "Большая российская энциклопедия: Наркология" [Great Russian Encyclopedia: Narcology]. BIGENC (in Russian). Retrieved March 31, 2019.
- World Health Organization. "Lexicon of alcohol and drug terms published by the World Health Organization". WHO.int. Retrieved March 31, 2019.
- Шабанов П. Д. (2003). Наркология: Практическое руководство для врачей [Narcology: Clinical Practice Guidelines] (in Russian). Moscow: ГЭОТАР-МЕД. p. 5. ISBN 5-9231-0183-1.
- Golichenko, Mikhail; Chu, Sandra Ka Hon (2018). "Human rights in patient care: drug treatment and punishment in Russia". Public Health Reviews. 39 (1). doi:10.1186/s40985-018-0088-5. ISSN 2107-6952. PMC 5984458.