Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia
|Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia|
Fairbank's disease or multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED) is a rare genetic disorder (dominant form: 1 in 10,000 births) that affects the growing ends of bones. Long bones normally elongate by expansion of cartilage in the growth plate (epiphyseal plate) near their ends. As it expands outward from the growth plate, the cartilage mineralizes and hardens to become bone (ossification). In MED, this process is defective.
Signs and symptoms
Children with autosomal dominant MED experience joint pain and fatigue after exercising. Their x-rays show small and irregular ossifications centers, most apparent in the hips and knees. There are very small capital femoral epiphyses and hypoplastic, poorly formed acetabular roofs. A waddling gait may develop. Knees have metaphyseal widening and irregularity while hands have brachydactyly (short fingers) and proximal metacarpal rounding. Flat feet are very common. The spine is normal but may have a few irregularities, such as scoliosis.
By adulthood, people with MED are of short stature or in the low range of normal and have short limbs relative to their trunks. Frequently, movement becomes limited at the major joints, especially at the elbows and hips. However, loose knee and finger joints can occur. Signs of osteoarthritis usually begin in early adulthood.
Children with recessive MED experience joint pain, particularly of the hips and knees, and commonly have deformities of the hands, feet, knees, or vertebral column (like scoliosis). Approximately 50% of affected children have abnormal findings at birth (such as club foot or twisted metatarsals, cleft palate, inward curving fingers due to underdeveloped bones and brachydactyly, or ear swelling caused by injury during birth). Height is in the normal range before puberty. As adults, people with recessive MED are only slightly more diminished in stature, but within the normal range. Lateral knee radiography can show multi-layered patellae.
Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED) encompasses a spectrum of skeletal disorders, most of which are inherited in an autosomal dominant form. However, there is an autosomal recessive form.
Associated genes include COL9A1, COL9A2, COL9A3, COMP, and MATN3.
In the dominant form, mutations in five genes are causative: COMP (chromosome 19), COL9A1 (chromosome 6), COL9A2 (chromosome 1), COL9A3 (chromosome 20), and MATN3 (chromosome 2). However, in approximately 10%–20% of samples analyzed, a mutation cannot be identified in any of the five genes above, suggesting that mutations in other as-yet unidentified genes are involved in the pathogenesis of dominant MED.
The COMP gene is mutated in 70% of the molecularly confirmed MED patients. Mutations are in the exons encoding the type III repeats (exons 8–14) and C-terminal domain (exons 15–19). The most common mutations in COL9A1 are in exons 8-10, in COL9A2 in exons 2-4, and in COL9A3 in exons 2-4. Altogether, those mutations cover 10% of the patients. The other 20% of affected people have mutations in MATN3 gene, all found within exon 2. The following testing regime has been recommended by the European Skeletal Dysplasia Network:
- Level 1: COMP (exons 10–15) and MATN3 (exon 2)
- Level 2: COMP (exons 8 & 9 and 16–19)
- Level 3: COL9A1 (exon 8), COL9A2 and COL9A3 (exon 3)
All those genes are involved in the production of the extracellular matrix (ECM). The role of COMP gene remains unclear. It is a noncollagenous protein of the ECM. Mutations in this gene can cause the pseudoachondroplasia (PSACH). It should play a role in the structural integrity of cartilage by its interaction with other extracellular matrix proteins and can be part of the interaction of the chondrocytes with the matrix and it is also a potent suppressor of apoptosis in chondrocytes. Another role is maintaining a vascular smooth muscle cells contractile under physiological or pathological stimuli.
Since 2003, the European Skeletal Dysplasia Network has used an online system to diagnose cases referred to the network before mutation analysis to study the mutations causing PSACH or MED.
COL9A1, COL9A2, COL9A3 are genes coding for collagen type IX, that is a component of hyaline cartilage. MATN3 protein may play a role in the formation of the extracellular filamentous networks and in the development and homeostasis of cartilage and bone.
In the recessive form, the DTDST gene, also known as SLC26A2, is mutated in almost 90% of the patients, causing diastrophic dysplasia. It is a sulfate transporter, transmembrane glycoprotein implicated in several chondrodysplasias. It is important for sulfation of proteoglycans and matrix organization.
Diagnosis should be based on the clinical and radiographic findings and a genetic analysis can be assessed.
Symptomatic individuals should be seen by an orthopedist to assess the possibility of treatment (physiotherapy for muscular strengthening, cautious use of analgesic medications such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs). Although there is no cure, surgery is sometimes used to relieve symptoms. Surgery may be necessary to treat misalignment of the hip (osteotomy of the pelvis or the collum femoris) and, in some cases, malformation (e.g., genu varum or genu valgum). In some cases, total hip replacement may be necessary. However, surgery is not always necessary or appropriate.
Sports involving joint overload are to be avoided, while swimming or cycling are strongly suggested. Cycling has to be avoided in people having ligamentous laxity.
Weight control is suggested.
The use of crutches, other deambulatory aids or wheelchair is useful to prevent hip pain. Pain in the hand while writing can be avoided using a pen with wide grip.
Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia was described separately by Seved Ribbing and Harold Arthur Thomas Fairbank in the 1930s.
In 1994, Ralph Oehlmann's group mapped MED to the peri-centromeric region of chromosome 19, using genetic linkage analysis. Michael Briggs' group mapped PSACH to the same area. COMP gene was firstly linked to MED and PSACH in 1995. In 1995, the group led by Knowlton did a "high-resolution genetic and physical mapping of multiple epiphyseal dysplasia and pseudoachondroplasia mutations at chromosome 19p13.1-p12."
Research on COMP led to mouse models of the pathology of MED. In 2002, Svensson's group generated a COMP-null mouse to study the COMP protein in vivo. These mice showed no anatomical, histological, or even ultrastructural abnormalities and none of the clinical signs of PSACH or MED. Lack of COMP was not compensated for by any other protein in the thrombospondin family. This study confirmed that the disease is not caused by reduced expression of COMP.
In 2007, Piròg-Garcia's group generated another mouse model carrying a mutation previously found in a human patient. With this new model, they were able to demonstrate that reduced cell proliferation and increased apoptosis are significant pathological mechanisms involved in MED and PSACH. In 2010, this mouse model allowed a new insight into myopathy and tendinopathy, which are often associated with PSACH and MED. These patients show increased skeletal muscle stress, as indicated by the increase in myofibers with central nuclei. Myopathy in the mutant mouse results from underlying tendinopathy, because the transmission of forces is altered from the normal state. There is a higher proportion of larger diameter fibrils of collagen, but the cross-sectional area of whole mutant tendons was also significantly less than that of the wild-type tendons causing joint laxity and stiffness, easy tiring and weakness. This study is important because those diseases are often mistaken for neurological problems, since the doctor can detect a muscle weakness. This includes many painful and useless clinical neurological examination before the correct diagnosis. In this work, the researchers suggest to the pediatric doctor to perform x-rays before starting the neurological assessment, to exclude the dysplasia.
COL91A mutation was discovered in 2001.
Prominent people with this condition
- Danny DeVito, American actor, producer, and director
- Robert Reich, former United States Secretary of Labor under President Bill Clinton from 1993 to 1997
- David Wetherill, British Paralympian table tennis athlete
- ↑ EL-Sobky, TA; Shawky, RM; Sakr, HM; Elsayed, SM; Elsayed, NS; Ragheb, SG; Gamal, R (15 November 2017). "A systematized approach to radiographic assessment of commonly seen genetic bone diseases in children: A pictorial review". J Musculoskelet Surg Res. 1 (2): 25. doi:10.4103/jmsr.jmsr_28_17. S2CID 79825711.
- ↑ Canepa, Giuseppe; Maroteaux, Pierre; Pietrogrande, Vincenzo (2001). Dysmorphic-syndromes and constitutional diseases of the skeleton. Padova: Piccin. ISBN 978-88-299-1502-6.
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 3.2 Lachman, Ralph S.; Krakow, Deborah; Cohn, Daniel H.; Rimoin, David L. (21 October 2004). "MED, COMP, multilayered and NEIN: an overview of multiple epiphyseal dysplasia". Pediatric Radiology. 35 (2): 116–123. doi:10.1007/s00247-004-1323-4. PMID 15503005. S2CID 7728788.
- ↑ "Multiple Epiphyseal Dysplasia (MED) – Pediatrics – Orthobullets". Archived from the original on 2018-05-05. Retrieved 2021-07-03.
- ↑ "COL9A1 collagen type IX alpha 1 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]". Archived from the original on 2019-09-11. Retrieved 2021-07-03.
- ↑ "COL9A2 collagen type IX alpha 2 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]". Archived from the original on 2019-09-11. Retrieved 2021-07-03.
- ↑ "COL9A3 collagen type IX alpha 3". Archived from the original on 2019-03-28. Retrieved 2021-07-03.
- ↑ "COMP cartilage oligomeric matrix protein [ Homo sapiens (human) ]". Archived from the original on 2021-05-20. Retrieved 2021-07-03.
- ↑ "MATN3 matrilin 3 [ Homo sapiens (human) ]". Archived from the original on 2019-03-28. Retrieved 2021-07-03.
- ↑ d Briggs, Michael; Wright, Michael J; Mortier, Geert R (July 25, 2013) . "Multiple Epiphyseal Dysplasia, Autosomal Dominant". GeneReviews. University of Washington, Seattle. PMID 20301302. Archived from the original on May 3, 2014. Retrieved May 3, 2014.
- ↑ Briggs, Michael D.; Chapman, Kathryn L. (May 2002). "Pseudoachondroplasia and multiple epiphyseal dysplasia: Mutation review, molecular interactions, and genotype to phenotype correlations". Human Mutation. 19 (5): 465–478. doi:10.1002/humu.10066. PMID 11968079.
- ↑ Paulsson M, Heinegård D (1981). "Purification and structural characterization of a cartilage matrix protein". Biochem J. 197 (2): 367–75. doi:10.1042/bj1970367. PMC 1163135. PMID 7325960.
- ↑ "GeneCards". Archived from the original on 2017-01-13. Retrieved 2021-07-03.
- ↑ Jackson, Gail C.; Mittaz-Crettol, Laureane; Taylor, Jacqueline A.; Mortier, Geert R.; Spranger, Juergen; Zabel, Bernhard; Le Merrer, Martine; Cormier-Daire, Valerie; Hall, Christine M.; Offiah, Amaka; Wright, Michael J.; Savarirayan, Ravi; Nishimura, Gen; Ramsden, Simon C.; Elles, Rob; Bonafe, Luisa; Superti-Furga, Andrea; Unger, Sheila; Zankl, Andreas; Briggs, Michael D. (January 2012). "Pseudoachondroplasia and multiple epiphyseal dysplasia: A 7-year comprehensive analysis of the known disease genes identify novel and recurrent mutations and provides an accurate assessment of their relative contribution". Human Mutation. 33 (1): 144–157. doi:10.1002/humu.21611. PMC 3272220. PMID 21922596.
- ↑ "MATN3 review". Archived from the original on 2010-12-05. Retrieved 2021-07-03.
- ↑ "SLC26A2 solute carrier family 26". Archived from the original on 2010-12-05. Retrieved 2021-07-03.
- ↑ Pagon RA, Bird TD, Dolan CR, et al., editors. GeneReviews™ [Internet]. Seattle (WA): University of Washington, Seattle; 1993.
- ↑ Trehan R, Dabbas N, Allwood D, Agarwal M, Kinmont C (2008). "Arthroscopic decompression and notchplasty for long-standing anterior cruciate ligament impingement in a patient with multiple epiphyseal dysplasia: a case report". J Med Case Rep. 2: 172. doi:10.1186/1752-1947-2-172. PMC 2412893. PMID 18498631.
- ↑ Linden, Suzanne K. Campbell, Robert J. Palisano, Darl W. Vander (2005). Physical therapy for children (3rd ed.). Philadelphia, Pa.: Elsevier Saunders. ISBN 978-0-7216-0378-0.
- ↑ Bajuifer S, Letts M (April 2005). "Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia in children: beware of overtreatment!" (PDF). Can J Surg. 48 (2): 106–9. PMC 3211605. PMID 15887789. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2018-12-07. Retrieved 2009-02-15.
- ↑ Juergen Maeurer (2006). Imaging strategies for the knee. ISBN 978-3-13-140561-6.
- ↑ Paans, Nienke; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge; van der Meer, Klaas; Bulstra, Sjoerd K; Stevens, Martin (23 February 2009). "The effects of exercise and weight loss in overweight patients with hip osteoarthritis: design of a prospective cohort study". BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders. 10 (1): 24. doi:10.1186/1471-2474-10-24. PMC 2649885. PMID 19236692.
- ↑ L.Echternach, Ed.John (1990). Physical therapy of the hip. New York...[etc.]: Churchill Livingstone. ISBN 978-0-443-08650-2.
- ↑ Michael Benson; John Fixsen; Malcolm Macnicol; Klausdieter Parsch, eds. (February 2, 2010). Children's Orthopaedics and Fractures. Springer. ISBN 978-1-84882-610-6. Retrieved May 3, 2014.
- ↑ Oehlmann, R; Summerville, GP; Yeh, G; Weaver, EJ; Jimenez, SA; Knowlton, RG (January 1994). "Genetic linkage mapping of multiple epiphyseal dysplasia to the pericentromeric region of chromosome 19". American Journal of Human Genetics. 54 (1): 3–10. PMC 1918067. PMID 8279467.
- ↑ Briggs, Michael D.; Merete Rasmussen, I.; Weber, James L.; Yuen, Juliet; Reinker, Kent; Garber, Ann P.; Rimoin, David L.; Cohn, Daniel H. (December 1993). "Genetic linkage of mild pseudoachondroplasia (PSACH) to markersin the pericentromeric region of chromosome 19". Genomics. 18 (3): 656–660. doi:10.1016/s0888-7543(05)80369-6. PMID 8307576.
- ↑ Briggs MD, Hoffman SM, King LM, Olsen AS, Mohrenweiser H, Leroy JG, et al. (1995). "Pseudoachondroplasia and multiple epiphyseal dysplasia due to mutations in the cartilage oligomeric matrix protein gene". Nat Genet. 10 (3): 330–6. doi:10.1038/ng0795-330. PMID 7670472. S2CID 43867448.
- ↑ Knowlton RG, Cekleniak JA, Cohn DH, Briggs MD, Hoffman SM, Brandriff BF, et al. (1995). "High-resolution genetic and physical mapping of multiple epiphyseal dysplasia and pseudoachondroplasia mutations at chromosome 19p13.1-p12". Genomics. 28 (3): 513–9. doi:10.1006/geno.1995.1183. PMID 7490089.
- ↑ Svensson L, Aszódi A, Heinegård D, Hunziker EB, Reinholt FP, Fässler R, et al. (2002). "Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein-deficient mice have normal skeletal development". Mol Cell Biol. 22 (12): 4366–71. doi:10.1128/mcb.22.12.4366-4371.2002. PMC 133870. PMID 12024046.
- ↑ Piróg-Garcia KA, Meadows RS, Knowles L, Heinegård D, Thornton DJ, Kadler KE, et al. (2007). "Reduced cell proliferation and increased apoptosis are significant pathological mechanisms in a murine model of mild pseudoachondroplasia resulting from a mutation in the C-terminal domain of COMP". Hum Mol Genet. 16 (17): 2072–88. doi:10.1093/hmg/ddm155. PMC 2674228. PMID 17588960.
- ↑ Piróg KA, Jaka O, Katakura Y, Meadows RS, Kadler KE, Boot-Handford RP, et al. (2010). "A mouse model offers novel insights into the myopathy and tendinopathy often associated with pseudoachondroplasia and multiple epiphyseal dysplasia". Hum Mol Genet. 19 (1): 52–64. doi:10.1093/hmg/ddp466. PMC 2792148. PMID 19808781.
- ↑ Czarny-Ratajczak M, Lohiniva J, Rogala P, et al. (November 2001). "A mutation in COL9A1 causes multiple epiphyseal dysplasia: further evidence for locus heterogeneity". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 69 (5): 969–80. doi:10.1086/324023. PMC 1274373. PMID 11565064.
- ↑ Jenkins, Mark (26 September 2013). "For Richer And For Poorer, But What Of That Vanishing Middle?". NPR. Archived from the original on 26 September 2015. Retrieved 5 October 2015.
- ↑ Joseph, Pat (2013-09-10). "Lights, Camera, Economics Robert Reich brings his message to the big screen". Berkeley. Archived from the original on 2015-10-18. Retrieved 5 October 2015.
- ↑ Leibovitch, Mark (March 14, 2002). "The True Measure of a Man". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on August 28, 2021. Retrieved November 8, 2008.
- ↑ David Wetherill; Parasport Archived 2012-12-24 at archive.today
- GeneReview/NIH/UW entry on Multiple Epiphyseal Dysplasia, Dominant Archived 2014-05-03 at the Wayback Machine
- GeneReview/NIH/UW entry on Multiple Epiphyseal Dysplasia, Recessive Archived 2020-09-28 at the Wayback Machine