List of infectious diseases

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This is a list of infectious diseases arranged by name, along with the infectious agents that cause them and the vaccines that can prevent or cure them when they exist.


Infectious agent Common name Signs and symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Vaccine(s)
Acinetobacter baumannii Acinetobacter infections
  • Blood infection: Fever, chills, vomiting, confusion
  • Urinary tract infection: bloody urine, cloudy urine
  • Pneumonia: Fever, chills, coughing
Culture Supportive care No
Actinomyces israelii, Actinomyces gerencseriae and Propionibacterium propionicus Actinomycosis Painful abscesses Histologic findings Penicillin, doxycycline, and sulfonamides No
Adenoviridae Adenovirus infection Antigen detection, polymerase chain reaction assay, virus isolation, and serology Most infections are mild and require no therapy or only symptomatic treatment. Under research[1]
Trypanosoma brucei African sleeping sickness (African trypanosomiasis)
  • Hemolymphatic phase: Fever, lymphadenopathy
  • Neurological phase: Sleep disorders, neurological symptoms, psychiatric symptoms
Identification of trypanosomes in a sample by microscopic examination Fexinidazole by mouth or pentamidine by injection for T. b. gambiense.

Suramin by injection is used for T. b. rhodesiense

Under research[2]
HIV (Human immunodeficiency virus) AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) Opportunistic infections Antibody test, p24 antigen test, PCR Treatment is typically a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) plus two nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) Under research[3]
Entamoeba histolytica Amoebiasis Most are asymptomatic. Microscopy Those with symptoms require treatment with an amoebicidal tissue-active agent and a luminal cysticidal agent. Individuals that are asymptomatic only need a luminal cysticidal agent. No
Anaplasma species Anaplasmosis Fever, leukopenia, abnormally elevated levels of liver enzymes indirect immunofluorescence antibody assay for IgG Tetracycline drugs (including tetracycline, chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, rolitetracycline, doxycycline, and minocycline) and imidocarb No
Angiostrongylus Angiostrongyliasis Abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and weakness, fever, central nervous system (CNS) symptoms Lumbar puncture, brain imaging, serology Albendazole No
Anisakis Anisakiasis Severe abdominal pain, malnutrition, and vomiting Gastroscopic examination, or histopathologic examination Albendazole No
Bacillus anthracis Anthrax boil-like skin lesion that eventually forms an ulcer with a black center (eschar) Culture, PCR Large doses of intravenous and oral antibiotics, such as fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin), doxycycline, erythromycin, vancomycin, or penicillin Yes
Arcanobacterium haemolyticum Arcanobacterium haemolyticum infection Head and neck infections, pharyngitis, and sinusitis Culture in human blood agar plates erythromycin (proposed as the first-line drug), clindamycin, gentamicin, and cephalosporins No
Junin virus Argentine hemorrhagic fever Yes[4]
Ascaris lumbricoides Ascariasis Migrating larvae, intestinal blockage, and bowel obstruction Fecal smear Albendazole, mebendazole, levamisole and pyrantel pamoate No
Aspergillus species Aspergillosis Hemoptysis, chest pain Chest X-ray and CT, microscopy by silver stains Voriconazole and liposomal amphotericin B in combination with surgical debridement No
Astroviridae species Astrovirus infection Diarrhoea, followed by nausea, vomiting, fever, malaise and abdominal pain Electron microscopy, enzyme-immunoassay (ELISA), immunofluorescence, and polymerase chain reaction Supportive care No
Babesia species Babesiosis Fever and hemolytic anemia Giemsa-stained thin-film blood smear Atovaquone and azithromycin. In life-threatening cases, exchange transfusion is performed. No
Bacillus cereus Bacillus cereus infection Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea Culture Vancomycin No
multiple bacteria Bacterial meningitis neck stiffness, sudden high fever, and altered mental status Lumbar puncture (contraindicated if there is a mass in the brain or the intracranial pressure is elevated), CT or MRI Antibiotics No
multiple bacteria Bacterial pneumonia Fever, rigors, cough, and runny nose, chest pain Sputum Gram stain and culture, Chest radiography Antibiotics No
List of bacterial vaginosis microbiota Bacterial vaginosis Increased vaginal discharge that usually smells like fish Gram stain and whiff test Metronidazole or clindamycin No
Bacteroides species Bacteroides infection No
Balantidium coli Balantidiasis Intermittent diarrhea, constipation, vomiting, abdominal pain, anorexia, weight loss, headache, colitis, and marked fluid loss microscopic examination of stools, or colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy Tetracycline, metronidazole or iodoquinol No
Bartonella Bartonellosis Carrión's disease, trench fever, cat-scratch disease, bacillary angiomatosis, peliosis hepatis, chronic bacteremia, endocarditis, chronic lymphadenopathy, and neurological disorders microscopy, serology, and PCR Antibiotics No
Baylisascaris species Baylisascaris infection No
BK virus BK virus infection No
Piedraia hortae Black piedra formation of nodules on the scalp, moustache and pubic hair Stain or culture Antifungal shampoos such as pyrithione zinc, formaldehyde and salicylic acid No
Blastocystis species Blastocystosis abdominal pain, itching, usually anal itching, constipation, diarrhea, watery or loose stool microscopic examination of a chemically preserved stool specimen Lack of scientific study to support the efficacy of any particular treatment No
Blastomyces dermatitidis Blastomycosis fever, chills, arthralgia (joint pain), myalgia (muscle pain), headache, and a nonproductive cough KOH prep, cytology, or histology Itraconazole or ketoconazole No
Machupo virus Bolivian hemorrhagic fever No
Clostridium botulinum; Note: Botulism is not an infection by Clostridium botulinum but caused by the intake of botulinum toxin. Botulism (and Infant botulism) Double vision, drooping of both eyelids, loss of facial expression and swallowing problems Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), electrochemiluminescent (ECL) tests Botulism antitoxin and supportive care No
Sabiá virus Brazilian hemorrhagic fever No
Brucella species Brucellosis fevers, sweating (often with characteristic foul, moldy smell sometimes likened to wet hay), and migratory arthralgia and myalgia (joint and muscle pain) Culture Tetracyclines, rifampicin, and the aminoglycosides streptomycin and gentamicin Yes[5]
Yersinia pestis Bubonic plague Chills, malaise, high fever, muscle cramps, seizures Culture Aminoglycosides such as streptomycin and gentamicin, tetracyclines (especially doxycycline), and the fluoroquinolone ciprofloxacin Under research[6]
usually Burkholderia cepacia and other Burkholderia species Burkholderia infection No
Mycobacterium ulcerans Buruli ulcer Swollen bump real-time PCR The most widely used antibiotic regimen is once daily oral rifampicin plus twice daily oral clarithromycin. No
Caliciviridae species Calicivirus infection (Norovirus and Sapovirus) Vomiting, diarrhea, stomach pain No
Campylobacter species Campylobacteriosis Fever, headache, and myalgia, followed by diarrhea Stool culture Erythromycin can be used in children, and tetracycline in adults. No
usually Candida albicans and other Candida species Candidiasis (Moniliasis; Thrush) Redness, itching, and discomfort In oral candidiasis, simply inspecting the person's mouth for white patches and irritation may make the diagnosis.

Symptoms of vaginal candidiasis are vaginal itching or soreness, pain during sexual intercourse

Antifungal medications No
Intestinal disease by Capillaria philippinensis, hepatic disease by Capillaria hepatica and pulmonary disease by Capillaria aerophila Capillariasis No
Streptococcus mutans Dental caries Tooth pain, difficulty eating, discoloration, tooth loss Under research[7]
Bartonella bacilliformis Carrion's disease Fever, pale appearance, malaise, painless liver enlargement, jaundice, enlarged lymph nodes, and enlarged spleen Peripheral blood smear with Giemsa stain, Columbia blood agar cultures, immunoblot, indirect immunofluorescence, and PCR Fluoroquinolones (such as ciprofloxacin) or chloramphenicol in adults and chloramphenicol plus beta-lactams in children are the antibiotic regimens of choice during the acute phase of Carrion's disease. No
Bartonella henselae Cat-scratch disease Malaise, decreased appetite, and aches Polymerase chain reaction Azithromycin No
usually Group A Streptococcus and Staphylococcus Cellulitis An area that is red, hot, and painful By history and physical examination Penicillinase-resistant semisynthetic penicillin or a first-generation cephalosporin No
Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis) Fever, malaise, headache, and enlargement of the liver, spleen, and lymph nodes Microscopic examination of fresh anticoagulated blood, or its buffy coat, for motile parasites; or by preparation of thin and thick blood smears stained with Giemsa, for direct visualization of parasites Benznidazole and nifurtimox (though benznidazole is the only drug available in most of Latin America) Under research[8]
Haemophilus ducreyi Chancroid Painful sores on the genitalia Clinical diagnosis The CDC recommendation is either a single oral dose (1 gram) of azithromycin, a single IM dose (250 mg) of ceftriaxone, oral (500 mg) of erythromycin three times a day for seven days, or oral (500 mg) of ciprofloxacin twice a day for three days. No
Varicella zoster virus (VZV) Chickenpox nausea, loss of appetite, aching muscles, and headache, followed by the characteristic rash or oral sores, malaise, and a low-grade fever The diagnosis of chickenpox is primarily based on the signs and symptoms, with typical early symptoms followed by a characteristic rash. Confirmation of the diagnosis is by examination of the fluid within the vesicles of the rash, or by testing blood for evidence of an acute immunologic response. Aciclovir Yes
Alphavirus Chikungunya sudden onset, combining high fever, joint pain, and rash Laboratory criteria include a decreased lymphocyte count consistent with viremia. However a definitive laboratory diagnosis can be accomplished through viral isolation, RT-PCR, or serological diagnosis. Supportive care Under research[9]
Chlamydia trachomatis Chlamydia In women, those who have an asymptomatic infection that is not detected by their doctor, approximately half will develop pelvic inflammatory disease (PID),

In men, painful or burning sensation when urinating

Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT), such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), transcription mediated amplification (TMA), and the DNA strand displacement amplification (SDA) azithromycin, doxycycline, erythromycin, levofloxacin or ofloxacin No
Chlamydophila pneumoniae Chlamydophila pneumoniae infection (Taiwan acute respiratory agent or TWAR) No
Vibrio cholerae Cholera Profuse diarrhea and vomiting of clear fluid A rapid dipstick test is available. oral rehydration therapy (ORT) Yes
usually Fonsecaea pedrosoi Chromoblastomycosis Usually, the infection slowly spreads to the surrounding tissue while still remaining localized to the area around the original wound. microscopy (KOH scrapings) Itraconazole, an antifungal azole, is given orally, with or without flucytosine. No
Batrachochytrium dendrabatidis Chytridiomycosis No
Clonorchis sinensis Clonorchiasis No
Clostridium difficile Clostridium difficile colitis diarrhea, recent antibiotic exposure, abdominal pain, fever, and a distinctive foul odor Colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy, cytotoxicity assay, toxin ELISA Vancomycin or fidaxomicin by mouth No
Coccidioides immitis and Coccidioides posadasii Coccidioidomycosis No
Colorado tick fever virus (CTFV) Colorado tick fever (CTF) No
usually rhinoviruses and coronaviruses Common cold (Acute viral rhinopharyngitis; Acute coryza) Cough, runny nose, sneezing, nasal congestion, and a sore throat Based on symptoms Supportive care No
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) Fever, cough, loss of taste and smell Yes
Coxsackie B virus Coxsackie B virus infection Fever, headache, sore throat, gastrointestinal distress, extreme fatigue as well as chest and muscle pain Enterovirus infection is diagnosed mainly via serological tests such as ELISA and from cell culture. There is no well-accepted treatment for the Coxsackie B group of viruses. Under research[10]
PRNP Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD) Memory loss, behavioral changes, poor coordination No
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) No
Cryptococcus neoformans Cryptococcosis Cough, shortness of breath, chest pain and fever India ink of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Intravenous Amphotericin B combined with flucytosine by mouth No
Cryptosporidium species Cryptosporidiosis Gastrointestinal and respiratory symptoms No
usually Ancylostoma braziliense; multiple other parasites Cutaneous larva migrans (CLM) No
Cyclospora cayetanensis Cyclosporiasis No
Taenia solium Cysticercosis No
Cytomegalovirus Cytomegalovirus infection Fatigue, swollen glands, fever, sore throat, muscle aches Blood and urine tests, biopsy Cidofovir, foscarnet, ganciclovir, valganciclovir Under research[11]
Dengue viruses (DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3 and DEN-4) – Flaviviruses Dengue fever Sudden-onset fever, headache, muscle and joint pains, and a rash Clinical diagnosis Treatment depends on the symptoms. Yes
Green algae Desmodesmus armatus Desmodesmus infection No
Dientamoeba fragilis Dientamoebiasis No
Corynebacterium diphtheriae Diphtheria fever of 38 °C (100.4 °F) or above; chills; fatigue; bluish skin coloration (cyanosis); sore throat; hoarseness; cough; headache; difficulty swallowing; painful swallowing; difficulty breathing; rapid breathing; foul-smelling and bloodstained nasal discharge; and lymphadenopathy Laboratory criteria
  • Isolation of C. diphtheriae culture
  • Histopathologic diagnosis

Toxin demonstration

  • In vivo tests (guinea pig inoculation)
  • In vitro test: Elek's gel precipitation test, PCR, ELISA, ICA

Clinical criteria

  • URT illness with sore throat
  • Low-grade fever
  • An adherent, dense, grey pseudomembrane covering the posterior aspect of the pharynx
Metronidazole, Erythromycin, Procaine penicillin G Yes
Diphyllobothrium Diphyllobothriasis No
Dracunculus medinensis Dracunculiasis Burning pain, blister from which worm emerges No
Eastern equine encephalitis virus Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) High fever, muscle pain, altered mental status, headache, meningeal irritation, photophobia, and seizures Blood tests Corticosteroids, anticonvulsants, and supportive measures (treating symptoms) Under research[12]
Ebolavirus (EBOV) Ebola hemorrhagic fever Flu-like symptoms, severe internal and external bleeding Yes
Echinococcus species Echinococcosis Imaging, Serology test Surgical removal of the cysts combined with chemotherapy No
Ehrlichia species Ehrlichiosis Under research[13]
Enterobius vermicularis Enterobiasis (Pinworm infection) Anal itching that gets worse at night, disturbed sleep No
Enterococcus species Enterococcus infection No
Enterovirus species Enterovirus infection No
Rickettsia prowazekii Epidemic typhus No
Parvovirus B19 Erythema infectiosum (Fifth disease) No
Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) and human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) Exanthem subitum (Sixth disease) No
Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica Fasciolasis No
Fasciolopsis buski Fasciolopsiasis No
PRNP Fatal familial insomnia (FFI) Severe insomnia followed by dementia, hallucinations, and death No
Filarioidea superfamily Filariasis No
Clostridium perfringens Food poisoning by Clostridium perfringens Diarrhea, vomiting, and fever Stool test Supportive care No
multiple Free-living amebic infection No
Fusobacterium species Fusobacterium infection No
usually Clostridium perfringens; other Clostridium species Gas gangrene (Clostridial myonecrosis) Discoloration, large black blisters, foul odor, pain and numbness No
Geotrichum candidum Geotrichosis No
PRNP Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome (GSS) No
Giardia lamblia Giardiasis Symptoms vary from none to severe diarrhea with poor absorption of nutrients. Detection of antigens on the surface of organisms in stool Treatment is not always necessary. If medications are needed, a nitroimidazole medication is used such as metronidazole, tinidazole, secnidazole or ornidazole. No
Burkholderia mallei Glanders No
Gnathostoma spinigerum and Gnathostoma hispidum Gnathostomiasis No
Neisseria gonorrhoeae Gonorrhea Swelling, itching, pain, and the formation of pus Gram stain and culture Ceftriaxone by injection and azithromycin by mouth Under research[14]
Klebsiella granulomatis Granuloma inguinale (Donovanosis) No
Streptococcus pyogenes Group A streptococcal infection Culture Penicillin No
Streptococcus agalactiae Group B streptococcal infection
  • Pneumonia: fever, lung consolidation, pleural effusion, tachypnea, tachycardia, or hypotension
  • Meningitis: fever, confusion, hypotension, headache, nuchal rigidity, or changing mental status
  • Bacteremia: fever, murmur, evidence of an embolic event, hypotension, phlebitis, tachycardia, tachypnea, splenomegaly, or evidence of heart failure
  • Skin and soft tissue infection, osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, or discitis: fever, cellulitis, arthritis, arthralgia, localized pain, decubitus ulcer, vascular insufficiency of the lower extremity, back pain, wound infection, or neurologic dysfunction
  • Urinary tract infection or pelvic abscess: fever, flank pain, pelvic pain, or abdominal pain
Gram stain Penicillin and ampicillin No
Haemophilus influenzae Haemophilus influenzae infection Pain, fever Gram stain In severe cases, cefotaxime and ceftriaxone delivered directly into the bloodstream are the elected antibiotics, and, for the less severe cases, an association of ampicillin and sulbactam, cephalosporins of the second and third generation, or fluoroquinolones are preferred. Yes
Enteroviruses, mainly Coxsackie A virus and enterovirus 71 (EV71) Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) Fever, rash, small blisters A diagnosis usually can be made by the presenting signs and symptoms alone. If the diagnosis is unclear, a throat swab or stool specimen may be taken to identify the virus by culture. Medications are usually not needed as hand, foot, and mouth disease is a viral disease that typically resolves on its own. Currently, there is no specific curative treatment for hand, foot and mouth disease. Under research[15][16]
Sin Nombre virus Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) No
Heartland virus Heartland virus disease No
Helicobacter pylori Helicobacter pylori infection Stomach ulcers No
Escherichia coli O157:H7, O111 and O104:H4 Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) thrombocytopenia and microangiopathic hemolysis, plus one or more of the following: neurological symptoms (e.g., confusion, cerebral convulsions, seizures); renal impairment (e.g., elevated creatinine, decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR], abnormal urinalysis); and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms (e.g., diarrhea, nausea/vomiting, abdominal pain, gastroenteritis). First diagnosis of aHUS is often made in the context of an initial, complement-triggering infection, and Shiga-toxin has also been implicated as a trigger that identifies patients with aHUS. Treatment involves supportive care and may include dialysis, steroids, blood transfusions, and plasmapheresis. No
Bunyaviridae species Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) Redness of cheeks and nose, fever, chills, sweaty palms, diarrhea, malaise, headaches, nausea, abdominal and back pain, respiratory problems HFRS is difficult to diagnose on clinical grounds alone and serological evidence is often needed. There is no cure for HFRS. Treatment involves supportive therapy including renal dialysis. No
Hendra virus Hendra virus infection No
Hepatitis A virus Hepatitis A Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dark urine, jaundice, fever, abdominal pain Blood tests Supportive care, liver transplantation Yes
Hepatitis B virus Hepatitis B None, yellowish skin, tiredness, dark urine, abdominal pain Blood tests Antiviral medication (tenofovir, interferon), liver transplantation Yes
Hepatitis C virus Hepatitis C Typically none Blood testing for antibodies or viral RNA Antivirals (sofosbuvir, simeprevir, others) Under research[17]
Hepatitis D Virus Hepatitis D Feeling tired, nausea and vomiting Immunoglobulin G Antivirals, pegylated interferon alpha No
Hepatitis E virus Hepatitis E Nausea, jaundice Hepatitis E virus (HEV) Rest, ribavirin (if chronic) Yes
Herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) Herpes simplex Blisters on genitalia and lips Based on symptoms, PCR, viral culture Aciclovir, valaciclovir, paracetamol (acetaminophen), topical lidocaine No
Histoplasma capsulatum Histoplasmosis Nonspecific respiratory symptoms, often cough or flu-like Histoplasmosis can be diagnosed by samples containing the fungus taken from sputum (via bronchoalveolar lavage), blood, or infected organs. It can also be diagnosed by detection of antigens in blood or urine samples by ELISA or polymerase chain reaction. In the majority of immunocompetent individuals, histoplasmosis resolves without any treatment. Antifungal medications are used to treat severe cases of acute histoplasmosis and all cases of chronic and disseminated disease. Typical treatment of severe disease first involves treatment with amphotericin B, followed by oral itraconazole. No
Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus Hookworm infection Under research[18]
Human bocavirus (HBoV) Human bocavirus infection No
Ehrlichia ewingii Human ewingii ehrlichiosis Fever, headache, myalgias, and malaise The diagnosis can be confirmed by using PCR. A peripheral blood smear can also be examined for intracytoplasmic inclusions called morulae. Doxycycline No
Anaplasma phagocytophilum Human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA) PCR Doxycycline No
Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) Human metapneumovirus infection No
Ehrlichia chaffeensis Human monocytic ehrlichiosis Fever, headache, malaise, and muscle aches (myalgia). PCR Doxycycline No
One of the human papillomaviruses Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection Warts Yes
Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIV) Human parainfluenza virus infection Under research[19][20]
Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1) Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 infection Under research[21][22]
Hymenolepis nana and Hymenolepis diminuta Hymenolepiasis Abdominal pain, loss of appetite, itching around the anus, irritability, and diarrhea Examination of the stool for eggs and parasites Praziquantel, niclosamide No
Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) Epstein–Barr virus infectious mononucleosis (Mono)
  • Fever – usually lasting 14 days; often mild
  • Sore throat – usually severe for 3–5 days, before resolving in the next 7–10 days.
  • Swollen glands –  mobile; usually located around the back of the neck (posterior cervical lymph nodes) and sometimes throughout the body.
Diagnostic modalities for infectious mononucleosis include: Infectious mononucleosis is generally self-limiting, so only symptomatic or supportive treatments are used. Under research[23]
Orthomyxoviridae species Influenza (flu) The onset of symptoms is sudden, and initial symptoms are predominately non-specific, including fever, chills, headaches, muscle pain or aching, a feeling of discomfort, loss of appetite, lack of energy/fatigue, and confusion. These symptoms are usually accompanied by respiratory symptoms such as a dry cough, sore or dry throat, hoarse voice, and a stuffy or runny nose. Diagnostic methods that can identify influenza include viral cultures, antibody- and antigen-detecting tests, and nucleic acid-based tests. Treatment of influenza in cases of mild or moderate illness is supportive and includes anti-fever medications such as acetaminophen and ibuprofen, adequate fluid intake to avoid dehydration, and resting at home. Under research[24]
Isospora belli Isosporiasis Infection causes acute, non-bloody diarrhea with crampy abdominal pain, which can last for weeks and result in malabsorption and weight loss Microscopic demonstration of the large typically shaped oocysts is the basis for diagnosis. Because the oocysts may be passed in small amounts and intermittently, repeated stool examinations and concentration procedures are recommended. If stool examinations are negative, examination of duodenal specimens by biopsy or string test (Enterotest) may be needed. The oocysts can be visualized on wet mounts by microscopy with bright-field, differential interference contrast (DIC), and epifluorescence. They can also be stained by modified acid-fast stain. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole No
Japanese encephalitis virus Japanese encephalitis Fever, headache and malaise, cachexia, hemiparesis, convulsions and a raised body temperature between 38–41 °C (100.4–105.8 °F), Mental retardation Available tests detecting JE virus-specific IgM antibodies in serum and/or cerebrospinal fluid, for example by IgM capture ELISA. Supportive Yes
unknown; evidence supports that it is infectious Kawasaki disease Fever > 5 days, large lymph nodes, rash, sore throat, diarrhea Based on symptoms, ultrasound of the heart Aspirin, immunoglobulin No
multiple Keratitis Treatment depends on the cause of the keratitis. Infectious keratitis can progress rapidly, and generally requires urgent antibacterial, antifungal, or antiviral therapy to eliminate the pathogen. Antibacterial solutions include levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin, ofloxacin. It is unclear if steroid eye drops are useful or not No
Kingella kingae Kingella kingae infection No
PRNP Kuru Body tremors, random outbursts of laughter, gradual loss of coordination Autopsy None No
Lassa virus Lassa fever Partial or complete, temporary or permanent hearing loss Laboratory testing Supportive No
Legionella pneumophila Legionellosis (Legionnaires' disease) Cough, shortness of breath, fever, muscle pains, headaches Urinary antigen test, sputum culture Effective antibiotics include most macrolides, tetracyclines, ketolides, and quinolones. No
Legionella pneumophila Pontiac fever No
Leishmania species Leishmaniasis Skin ulcers, fever, low red blood cells, enlarged liver Leishmaniasis is diagnosed in the hematology laboratory by direct visualization of the amastigotes (Leishman–Donovan bodies). Buffy-coat preparations of peripheral blood or aspirates from marrow, spleen, lymph nodes, or skin lesions should be spread on a slide to make a thin smear and stained with Leishman stain or Giemsa stain (pH 7.2) for 20 minutes. For visceral leishmaniasis in India, South America, and the Mediterranean, liposomal amphotericin B is the recommended treatment and is often used as a single dose. Rates of cure with a single dose of amphotericin have been reported as 95%. In India, almost all infections are resistant to pentavalent antimonials. In Africa, a combination of pentavalent antimonials and paromomycin is recommended. These, however, can have significant side effects. Miltefosine, an oral medication, is effective against both visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis. Under research[25]
Mycobacterium leprae and Mycobacterium lepromatosis Leprosy Numbness, small nodules, deformation of extremities In countries where people are frequently infected, a person is considered to have leprosy if they have one of the following two signs:
  • Skin lesion consistent with leprosy and with definite sensory loss.
  • Positive skin smears.
Rifampicin, dapsone, clofazimine Under research[26]
Leptospira species Leptospirosis None, headaches, muscle pains, fevers Testing blood for antibodies against the bacterium or its DNA Doxycycline, penicillin, ceftriaxone Yes
Listeria monocytogenes Listeriosis Diarrhea, fever, headache Culture of blood or spinal fluid Ampicillin, gentamicin No
Borrelia burgdorferi, Borrelia garinii, and Borrelia afzelii Lyme disease (Lyme borreliosis) Expanding area of redness at the site of a tick bite, fever, headache, tiredness Based on symptoms, tick exposure, blood tests Doxycycline, amoxicillin, ceftriaxone, cefuroxime Under research[27]
Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi Lymphatic filariasis (Elephantiasis) Severe swelling of extremities, thickened skin Microscopic examination of blood Albendazole with ivermectin or diethylcarbamazine No
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) Lymphocytic choriomeningitis Fever, lack of appetite, headache, muscle aches, malaise, nausea, and/or vomiting Blood test Symptomatic and supportive No
Plasmodium species Malaria Headache, fever, shivering, joint pain, vomiting, hemolytic anemia, jaundice, hemoglobin in the urine, retinal damage, and convulsions Examination of the blood, antigen detection tests Antimalarial medication Yes
Marburg virus Marburg hemorrhagic fever (MHF) Fever, weakness, myalgias Blood test Supportive Under research[28]
Measles virus Measles Fever, cough, runny nose, red Fever, cough, runny nose, inflamed eyes, rash Typically, clinical diagnosis begins with the onset of fever and malaise about 10 days after exposure to the measles virus, followed by the emergence of cough, coryza, and conjunctivitis that worsen in severity over 4 days of appearing. Observation of Koplik's spots is also diagnostic. Supportive care Yes
Middle East respiratory syndrome–related coronavirus Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) Fever, cough, shortness of breath rRT-PCR testing Symptomatic and supportive Under research[29]
Burkholderia pseudomallei Melioidosis (Whitmore's disease) None, fever, pneumonia, multiple abscesses Growing the bacteria in culture mediums Ceftazidime, meropenem, co-trimoxazole No
multiple Meningitis Fever, headache, neck stiffness Lumbar puncture Antibiotics, antivirals, steroids No
Neisseria meningitidis Meningococcal disease Flu-like symptoms, stiff neck, altered mental status, seizures, purpura Treatment in primary care usually involves prompt intramuscular administration of benzylpenicillin, and then an urgent transfer to hospital (hopefully, an academic level I medical center, or at least a hospital with round the clock neurological care, ideally with neurological intensive and critical care units) for further care. Once in the hospital, the antibiotics of choice are usually IV broad spectrum 3rd generation cephalosporins, e.g., cefotaxime or ceftriaxone. Benzylpenicillin and chloramphenicol are also effective. Yes
usually Metagonimus yokagawai Metagonimiasis Diarrhea and colicky abdominal pain Metagonimiasis is diagnosed by eggs seen in feces. Praziquantel No
Microsporidia phylum Microsporidiosis PCR Fumagillin has been used in the treatment. Another agent used is albendazole. No
Molluscum contagiosum virus (MCV) Molluscum contagiosum (MC) Small, raised, pink lesions with a dimple in the center Based on appearance Cimetidine, podophyllotoxin No
Monkeypox virus Monkeypox Fever, headache, muscle pains, shivering, blistering rash, swollen lymph nodes Testing for viral DNA Supportive, antivirals, vaccinia immune globulin Yes
Mumps virus Mumps Parotitis and non-specific symptoms such as fever, headache, malaise, muscle pain, and loss of appetite Antibody testing, viral cultures, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction Supportive Yes
Rickettsia typhi Murine typhus (Endemic typhus) Headache, fever, muscle pain, joint pain, nausea and vomiting Early diagnosis continued to be based on clinical suspicion. The most effective antibiotics include tetracycline and chloramphenicol. No
Mycoplasma pneumoniae Mycoplasma pneumonia No
Mycoplasma genitalium Mycoplasma genitalium infection No
numerous species of bacteria (Actinomycetoma) and fungi (Eumycetoma) Mycetoma No
parasitic dipterous fly larvae Myiasis Boil with larva inside No
most commonly Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae Neonatal conjunctivitis (Ophthalmia neonatorum) No
Nipah virus Nipah virus infection Under research[30]
Norovirus Norovirus Under research[31]
PRNP (New) Variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (vCJD, nvCJD) No
usually Nocardia asteroides and other Nocardia species Nocardiosis No
Onchocerca volvulus Onchocerciasis (River blindness) Under research[32]
Opisthorchis viverrini and Opisthorchis felineus Opisthorchiasis No
Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Paracoccidioidomycosis (South American blastomycosis) No
usually Paragonimus westermani and other Paragonimus species Paragonimiasis No
Pasteurella species Pasteurellosis No
Pediculus humanus capitis Pediculosis capitis (Head lice) Itching, nits attached to hair No
Pediculus humanus corporis Pediculosis corporis (Body lice) No
Pthirus pubis Pediculosis pubis (pubic lice, crab lice) No
multiple Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) No
Bordetella pertussis Pertussis (whooping cough) Severe coughing fits ending in gasps Yes
Yersinia pestis Plague Under research[6]
Streptococcus pneumoniae Pneumococcal infection Yes
Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) No
multiple Pneumonia No
Poliovirus Poliomyelitis Yes
Prevotella species Prevotella infection No
usually Naegleria fowleri Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) No
JC virus Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy No
Chlamydophila psittaci Psittacosis No
Coxiella burnetii Q fever Yes
Rabies virus Rabies Yes
Borrelia hermsii, Borrelia recurrentis, and other Borrelia species Relapsing fever No
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) Respiratory syncytial virus infection Under research[33]
Rhinosporidium seeberi Rhinosporidiosis No
Rhinovirus Rhinovirus infection No
Rickettsia species Rickettsial infection No
Rickettsia akari Rickettsialpox No
Rift Valley fever virus Rift Valley fever (RVF) No
Rickettsia rickettsii Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF) No
Rotavirus Rotavirus infection Yes
Rubella virus Rubella Yes
Salmonella species Salmonellosis No
SARS coronavirus Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) Under research[34]
Sarcoptes scabiei Scabies No
Group A Streptococcus species Scarlet fever No
Schistosoma species Schistosomiasis Under research[35]
multiple Sepsis No
Shigella species Shigellosis (bacillary dysentery) No
Varicella zoster virus (VZV) Shingles (Herpes zoster) Yes[36]
Variola major or Variola minor Smallpox (variola) Yes
Sporothrix schenckii Sporotrichosis No
Staphylococcus species Staphylococcal food poisoning No
Staphylococcus species Staphylococcal infection No
Strongyloides stercoralis Strongyloidiasis No
Measles virus Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis Yes
Treponema pallidum Bejel, Syphilis, and Yaws Under research[37]
Taenia species Taeniasis No
Clostridium tetani Tetanus (lockjaw) Yes
Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) Tick-borne encephalitis Yes
usually Trichophyton species Tinea barbae (barber's itch) No
usually Trichophyton tonsurans Tinea capitis (ringworm of the scalp) No
usually Trichophyton species Tinea corporis (ringworm of the body) No
usually Epidermophyton floccosum, Trichophyton rubrum, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes Tinea cruris (Jock itch) No
Trichophyton rubrum Tinea manum (ringworm of the hand) No
usually Hortaea werneckii Tinea nigra No
usually Trichophyton species Tinea pedis (athlete's foot) No
usually Trichophyton species Tinea unguium (onychomycosis) No
Malassezia species Tinea versicolor (Pityriasis versicolor) No
Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus pyogenes Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) Under research[38][39]
Toxocara canis or Toxocara cati Toxocariasis (ocular larva migrans (OLM)) No
Toxocara canis or Toxocara cati Toxocariasis (visceral larva migrans (VLM)) No
Toxoplasma gondii Toxoplasmosis No
Chlamydia trachomatis Trachoma No
Trichinella spiralis Trichinosis No
Trichomonas vaginalis Trichomoniasis No
Trichuris trichiura Trichuriasis (whipworm infection) No
usually Mycobacterium tuberculosis Tuberculosis Yes
Francisella tularensis Tularemia Under research[40]
Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica, serovar typhi Typhoid fever Yes
Rickettsia Typhus fever No
Ureaplasma urealyticum Ureaplasma urealyticum infection No
Coccidioides immitis or Coccidioides posadasii.[41] Valley fever No
Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus Venezuelan equine encephalitis No
Guanarito virus Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever No
Vibrio vulnificus Vibrio vulnificus infection No
Vibrio parahaemolyticus Vibrio parahaemolyticus enteritis No
multiple viruses Viral pneumonia No
West Nile virus West Nile fever Under research[42]
Trichosporon beigelii White piedra (tinea blanca) No
Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Yersinia pseudotuberculosis infection No
Yersinia enterocolitica Yersiniosis No
Yellow fever virus Yellow fever Yes
Zeaspora fungus Zeaspora No
Zika virus Zika fever Under research[43]
Mucorales order (Mucormycosis) and Entomophthorales order (Entomophthoramycosis) Zygomycosis No

See also


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