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The Lamaze technique, also known as the psychoprophylactic method or simply Lamaze, began as a prepared childbirth technique, popularized in the 1950s by French obstetrician Dr. Fernand Lamaze based on his observations in the Soviet Union, as an alternative to medical intervention during childbirth. The goal of Lamaze is to build a mother's confidence in her ability to give birth, through the presentation of classes that help pregnant women understand how to cope with pain in ways that both facilitate labor and promote comfort, including relaxation techniques, movement and massage.
Dr. Lamaze was influenced by childbirth practices in the Soviet Union, which involved breathing and relaxation techniques under the supervision of a "monitrice", or midwife. The Lamaze method gained popularity in the United States after Marjorie Karmel wrote about her experiences in her 1959 book Thank You, Dr. Lamaze, and with the formation of the American Society for Psycho prophylaxis in Obstetrics (ASPO Lamaze). Currently Lamaze International, founded by Karmel and Elisabeth Bing, is the premier childbirth education certifying organization in the world.
Modern Lamaze childbirth classes teach expectant mothers many ways to work with the labor process to reduce the pain associated with childbirth and promote normal (physiological) birth including the first moments after birth. Techniques include allowing labour to begin on its own, movement and positions, massage, aromatherapy, hot and cold packs, breathing techniques, the use of a "birth ball" (yoga or exercise ball), spontaneous pushing, upright positions for labour and birth, breastfeeding techniques, and keeping mother and baby together after childbirth. Each class has a specific curriculum that includes learning about common medical interventions and pain relief such as an epidural in an evidence based, non-biased manner.
There is a training and certification program available to practitioners, leading to the Lamaze Certified Childbirth Educator (LCCE) designation
The "Six Healthy Birth Practices"
The core beliefs of Lamaze International are summarised in a list called "Six Healthy Birth Practices", which are:
- Practice 1: Let labor begin on its own
- Practice 2: Walk, move around and change positions throughout labor
- Practice 3: Bring a loved one, friend or doula for continuous support
- Practice 4: Avoid interventions that are not medically necessary
- Practice 5: Avoid giving birth on your back and follow your body's urges to push
- Practice 6: Keep mother and baby together – It's best for mother, baby and breastfeeding
Each of the practices includes a video, a patient handout, and professional references for medical personnel. The Lamaze Healthy Birth Practices are available in eleven languages: English, Mandarin, Russian, Spanish, Portuguese, Czech, Polish, Romanian, Greek, Arabic, and Hebrew.
Lamaze himself has been criticized for being over-disciplinary and anti-feminist; "The disciplinary nature" of Lamaze’s approach to childbirth is evident from Sheila Kitzinger’s description of the methods he deployed while working in a Paris clinic during the 1950s. According to Kitzinger, Lamaze consistently ranked the women’s performance in childbirth from "excellent" to "complete failure" on the basis of their "restlessness and screams". Those who "failed" were, he thought, "themselves responsible because they harbored doubts or had not practiced sufficiently", and "intellectual" women who "asked too many questions" were considered by Lamaze to be the most "certain to fail". The Lamaze technique has also been criticized for being ineffective.
- Childbirth education: Get ready for labor and delivery, Mayo Clinic, July 25, 2009, accessed July 10, 2011.
- "Elisabeth Bing, 'Mother of Lamaze,' Dies at 100". New York Times. 17 May 2015. Retrieved 17 May 2015.
- "Certification Exam". Lamaze International Certifying Exam. Retrieved July 27, 2015.
- Let labor begin on its own www.lamaze.org, Retrieved 27 July 2015
- Walk, move around and change positions throughout labor www.lamaze.org, Retrieved 27 July 2015
- Bring a loved one, friend or doula for continuous support www.lamaze.org, Retrieved 27 July 2015
- Avoid interventions that are not medically necessary www.lamaze.org, Retrieved 27 July 2015
- Avoid giving birth on your back and follow your body's urges to push www.lamaze.org, Retrieved 27 July 2015
- Keep mother and baby together – It's best for mother, baby and breastfeeding www.lamaze.org, Retrieved 27 July 2015
- Eleven languages www.lamaze.org, Retrieved 27 July 2015
- Jones, Jane Clare (February 2012). "Idealized and Industrialized Labor: Anatomy of a Feminist Controversy". Hypatia. 27 (1): 99–117. doi:10.1111/j.1527-2001.2011.01217.x.
- Paula A. Michael s (March 2014). Lamaze: An International History. Oxford University Press. pp. 87–. ISBN 978-0-19-973864-9.
- Jacqueline H. Wolf (7 January 2011). Deliver Me from Pain: Anesthesia and Birth in America. JHU Press. pp. 157–. ISBN 978-1-4214-0323-6.
- Official site of Lamaze International
- Really Teaching Lamaze: Evidence-Based Practice
- Records of Lamaze International. Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute, Harvard University.
- Audiotape Collection of Lamaze International. Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute, Harvard University.
- Moving Image Collection of Lamaze International. Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute, Harvard University.