|Trade names||Nourianz, Nouryant|
|Drug class||Adenosine A2A receptor antagonist|
|Main uses||Parkinson's disease (PD) "off" episodes|
|Side effects||Involuntary muscle movements, constipation, hallucinations, dizziness, nausea, trouble sleeping|
|Typical dose||20 mg OD|
|Metabolism||Mainly CYP1A1, CYP3A4, and CYP3A5|
|Elimination half-life||64–69 hrs|
|Excretion||68% faeces, 18% urine|
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||384.436 g·mol−1|
|3D model (JSmol)|
Istradefylline, sold under the brand name Nourianz, is a medication used with levodopa/carbidopa for "off" episodes in Parkinson's disease (PD). An "off" episode is a time when other medications are not working well, resulting in tremor and difficulty walking. It is taken by mouth.
Common side effects include involuntary muscle movements, constipation, hallucinations, dizziness, nausea, and trouble sleeping. Other side effects may include compulsive behavior. It is a adenosine A2A receptor antagonist.
Istradefylline was approved for medical use in the United States in 2019. In Europe it was refused approval in 2021 due to unclear evidence of benefit. It is not available in the United Kingdom. In the United States it costs about 1,500 USD per month.
The typical dose is 20 mg once per day.
Mechanism of action
Istradefylline is a selective antagonist at the adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR), but the precise mechanism by which it exerts its therapeutic effect in Parkinson's disease is unknown. However, it is known that dimers of these receptors form heterotetramers with the dimers of dopamine D2 receptors (D2R) within striatum. Adenosine acts as an endogenous A2AR agonist, but also as a negative allosteric modulator (NAM) within these tetramers towards D2Rs, thus inhibiting the D2R mediated effects of dopamine, an endogenous D2R agonist. Istradefylline is believed to bind a A2AR within a A2AR-D2R-tetramer and function as a NAM towards the other A2AR (instead of D2R), thus inhibiting the effects of adenosine and enhancing the movement (locomotion) promoting effects exerted by dopamine via D2R. However, at high istradefylline concentration, it causes locomotion depression akin to caffeine (which is a broad-spectrum adenosine receptor antagonist), and might do so by displacing adenosine, and working as a NAM towards D2R (instead of A2AR).
It was first approved in Japan in 2013.
The effectiveness of Nourianz in treating "off" episodes in patients with Parkinson's disease who are already being treated with levodopa/carbidopa was shown in four 12-week placebo-controlled clinical studies that included a total of 1,143 participants. In all four studies, people treated with Nourianz experienced a statistically significant decrease from baseline in daily "off" time compared to patients receiving a placebo.
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