Immune disorder

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Immune disorder
Other names: Autoimmune disease
Child with Graves' disease - with a goiter and protruding eyes.

An immune disorder is a dysfunction of the immune system.[1] These disorders can be characterized in several different ways:

  • By the component(s) of the immune system affected
  • By whether the immune system is overactive or underactive
  • By whether the condition is congenital or acquired

According to the International Union of Immunological Societies, more than 150 primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs) have been characterized.[2] However, the number of acquired immunodeficiencies exceeds the number of PIDs.[3]

It has been suggested that most people have at least one primary immunodeficiency.[4] Due to redundancies in the immune system, though, many of these are never detected.

Autoimmune diseases

An autoimmune disease is a condition arising from an abnormal immune response to a normal body part.[5] There are at least 80 types of autoimmune diseases.[5] Nearly any body part can be involved. Common symptoms include low-grade fever and feeling tired.[5] Often symptoms come and go.[5]

List of some autoimmune disorders


Primary immune deficiency diseases are those caused by inherited genetic mutations. Secondary or acquired immune deficiencies are caused by something outside the body such as a virus or immune suppressing drugs.[6]

Primary immune diseases are at risk to an increased susceptibility to, and often recurrent ear infections, pneumonia, bronchitis, sinusitis or skin infections. Immunodeficient patients may less frequently develop abscesses of their internal organs, autoimmune or rheumatologic and gastrointestinal problems.[7]

Primary immune deficiencies
Secondary immune deficiencies


An allergy is an abnormal immune reaction to a harmless antigen.[citation needed]

See also


  1. 1.0 1.1 Erjavec SO, Gelfman S, Abdelaziz AR, Lee EY, Monga I, Alkelai A, Ionita-Laza I, Petukhova L, Christiano AM (Feb 2022). "Whole exome sequencing in Alopecia Areata identifies rare variants in KRT82". Nat Commun. 13 (1): 800. doi:10.1038/s41467-022-28343-3. PMID 35145093.
  2. Geha RS, Notarangelo LD, Casanova JL, et al. (October 2007). "Primary immunodeficiency diseases: an update from the International Union of Immunological Societies Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases Classification Committee". J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 120 (4): 776–94. doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2007.08.053. PMC 2601718. PMID 17952897.
  3. Kumar A, Teuber SS, Gershwin ME (2006). "Current perspectives on primary immunodeficiency diseases". Clin. Dev. Immunol. 13 (2–4): 223–59. doi:10.1080/17402520600800705. PMC 2270780. PMID 17162365.
  4. Casanova JL, Abel L (August 2007). "Primary immunodeficiencies: a field in its infancy". Science. 317 (5838): 617–9. Bibcode:2007Sci...317..617C. doi:10.1126/science.1142963. PMID 17673650. S2CID 7287315.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 5.3 "Autoimmune diseases fact sheet". OWH. 16 July 2012. Archived from the original on 5 October 2016. Retrieved 5 October 2016.
  6. "Primary Immune Deficiency Diseases". Department of Health and Human Services: National Institutes of Health. Archived from the original on 27 July 2011. Retrieved 31 August 2011.
  7. "Primary Immunodeficiency FAQ". INFO4PI. Archived from the original on 2 October 2011. Retrieved 31 August 2011.
  8. "Immune Disorders". Archived from the original on 2015-03-30. Retrieved 2023-02-13.

External links