Hydrazide

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Hydrazides in organic chemistry are a class of organic compounds with the formula RNHNH2 where R is acyl (R'CO-), sulfonyl (R'SO2-), or phosphoryl (R'2P(O)-).[1] Unlike hydrazine and alkylhydrazines, hydrazides are nonbasic owing to the inductive influence of the acyl, sulfonyl, or phosphoryl substituent.

Sulfonyl hydrazides

Tosyl hydrazide

A common sulfonyl hydrazide is p-toluenesulfonyl hydrazide, a white air-stable solid.They are also widely used as organic reagents.

Toluenesulfonyl hydrazide is used to generate toluenesulfonyl hydrazones. When derived from ketones, these hydrazones participate in the Shapiro reaction[2] and the Eschenmoser–Tanabe fragmentation.[3][4]

2,4,6-Triisopropylbenzenesulfonylhydrazide is a useful source of diimide.[5]

Acyl hydrazide

An example of an acylhydrazine. This compound has been called acetylhydrazide, acetohydrazide, or acetic acid hydrazide.[6]

Acylhydrazines are derivatives of carboxylic acids, although they are typically prepared by the reaction of esters with hydrazine:[7]

Use

An applied example is a synthesis of sunitinib begins by mixing 5-fluoroisatin slowly into hydrazine hydrate.[8] After 4 hours at 110 °C, the indole ring structure has been broken into (2-amino-5-fluoro-phenyl)-acetic acid hydrazide with reduction of the ketone at the 3-position. Subsequent annelation in strong acid creates the 1,3-dihydro-2-oxo indole structure required for the drug.

Uses

1.) Hydrazide analogs has biological activities like antidepressant, anticonvulsant, antiinflammatory, antibacterial, antimalarial, anticancer, and antimicrobial.

2.) Hydrazide is a drug used as a tablet. It is typically used for the treatment of edema, high blood pressure or hypertension.

See also

References

  1. ^ IUPAC, Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book") (1997). Online corrected version:  (2006–) "Hydrazides". doi:10.1351/goldbook.H02879
  2. ^ Shapiro, Robert H. (1976). "Alkenes from Tosylhydrazones". Org. React. 23 (3): 405–507. doi:10.1002/0471264180.or023.03. ISBN 0471264180.
  3. ^ Schreiber, J.; Felix, D.; Eschenmoser, A.; Winter, M.; Gautschi, F.; Schulte-Elte, K. H.; Sundt, E.; Ohloff, G.; Kalovoda, J.; Kaufmann, H.; Wieland, P.; Anner, G. (1967). "Die Synthese von Acetylen-carbonyl-Verbindungen durch Fragmentierung von α-β-Epoxy-ketonen mit p-Toluolsulfonylhydrazin. Vorläufige Mitteilung". Helv. Chim. Acta (in German). 50 (7): 2101–2108. doi:10.1002/hlca.19670500747.
  4. ^ Tanabe, Masato; Crowe, David F.; Dehn, Robert L. (1967). "A novel fragmentation reaction of α,β-epoxyketones the synthesis of acetylenic ketones". Tetrahedron Lett. 8 (40): 3943–3946. doi:10.1016/S0040-4039(01)89757-4.
  5. ^ Chamberlin, A. Richard; Sheppeck, James E.; Somoza, Alvaro (2008). "2,4,6-Triisopropylbenzenesulfonylhydrazide". Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis. doi:10.1002/047084289X.rt259.pub2. ISBN 978-0471936237.
  6. ^ "ChemicalBook:2-(4-ethylphenoxy)acetylhydrazide".
  7. ^ Schirmann, Jean-Pierre; Bourdauducq, Paul (2001). "Hydrazine". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a13_177.
  8. ^ "US patent 6573293". Archived from the original on 2012-09-06.