Haemophilus parainfluenzae

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Haemophilus parainfluenzae
Scientific classification edit
Domain: Bacteria
Phylum: Pseudomonadota
Class: Gammaproteobacteria
Order: Pasteurellales
Family: Pasteurellaceae
Genus: Haemophilus
H. parainfluenzae
Binomial name
Haemophilus parainfluenzae
Rivers 1922 (Approved Lists 1980)[1]

Haemophilus parainfluenzae is a species of Haemophilus.

It is one of the HACEK organisms.[2] H. parainfluenzae is an opportunistic pathogen that has been associated with endocarditis, bronchitis, otitis, conjunctivitis, pneumonia, abscesses and genital tract infections.

Natural genetic transformation

Glistening colonies of H. parainfluenzae on Chocolate agar

H. parainfluenzae biotypes I and II are capable of natural genetic transformation.[3]

Natural genetic transformation is a bacterial adaptation for DNA transfer. In order for a bacterium to bind, take up and recombine exogenous DNA into its genome it must enter a special physiological state termed natural competence. In H. parainfluenzae, competence is induced during the late stationary phase of growth.[3]

Natural DNA transformation may play a major role in the exchange of genetic information among H. parainfluenzae isolates.


Acute H. parainfluenzae infections must be treated with antibiotics. Beta-lactam agents such as amoxicillin and ampicillin are antibiotics that are effective against H. parainfluenzae. The Duration of Antibiotic Therapy depends on the severity of the infection. In 40% of infective endocarditis cases caused by H. parainfluenzae, the best treatment is a valve replacement.[4]


  1. "Species: Haemophilus parainfluenzae". lpsn.dsmz.de. Archived from the original on 2022-12-02. Retrieved 2023-03-19.
  2. HACEK Group Infections at eMedicine
  3. 3.0 3.1 Gromkova RC, Mottalini TC, Dove MG (1998). "Genetic transformation in Haemophilus parainfluenzae clinical isolates". Curr. Microbiol. 37 (2): 123–6. PMID 9662612.
  4. "Canada, P. H. A. of. (2020, December 21). Government of Canada. Canada.ca". Archived from the original on 2023-03-18. Retrieved 2023-03-19.

External links