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Combination of
Trade namesAlyacen, Aranelle, Balziva, others
Other namesEE/NET
Clinical data
Routes of
By mouth
Defined daily dosenot established[1]
External links
Legal status

Ethinylestradiol/norethisterone (EE/NET), or ethinylestradiol/norethindrone, is a combination birth control pill which contains ethinylestradiol (EE), an estrogen and norethisterone (NET), a progestin.[2] It is used for birth control, symptoms of menstruation, endometriosis, and menopausal symptoms.[2][3] Other uses include acne.[2] It is taken by mouth.[2]

Side effects can include nausea, headache, blood clots, breast pain, depression, and liver problems.[3] Use is not recommended during pregnancy, the initial three weeks after childbirth, and in those at high risk of blood clots.[3][4] It; however, may be started immediately after a miscarriage or abortion.[4] Smoking while using combined birth control pills is not recommended.[5] It works by stopping ovulation, making the uterus not suitable for implantation, and making the mucus at the opening to the cervix thick.[4]

This combination pill was approved for medical use in the United States in 1964.[6] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines.[7] It is available as a generic medication.[8] In the United Kingdom three months of medication costs the NHS about £2.70.[9] In the United States it costs about $25–50 per month.[8] It is marketed under a large number of brand names.[10] In 2017, it was the 53rd most commonly prescribed medication in the United States, with more than fourteen million prescriptions.[11][12]


The defined daily dose is not established.[1]

See also


  1. 1.0 1.1 "WHOCC - ATC/DDD Index". Retrieved 17 September 2020.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 "Ethinyl estradiol and norethindrone (HRT) medical facts from". Archived from the original on 24 December 2016. Retrieved 23 December 2016.
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 World Health Organization (2009). Stuart MC, Kouimtzi M, Hill SR (eds.). WHO Model Formulary 2008. World Health Organization. p. 365. hdl:10665/44053. ISBN 9789241547659.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 "Brevinor Tablets - Summary of Product Characteristics (SPC) - (eMC)". Archived from the original on 24 December 2016. Retrieved 23 December 2016.
  5. "Estrogen-Progestin Combinations". The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Archived from the original on 23 December 2016. Retrieved 8 December 2016.
  6. Haussman, Melissa (2013). Reproductive Rights and the State: Getting the Birth Control, RU-486, Morning-after Pills and the Gardasil Vaccine to the U.S. Market. ABC-CLIO. p. 72. ISBN 9780313398223. Archived from the original on 2016-12-24.
  7. World Health Organization (2019). World Health Organization model list of essential medicines: 21st list 2019. Geneva: World Health Organization. hdl:10665/325771. WHO/MVP/EMP/IAU/2019.06. License: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Hamilton, Richart (2015). Tarascon Pocket Pharmacopoeia 2015 Deluxe Lab-Coat Edition. Jones & Bartlett Learning. p. 353. ISBN 9781284057560.
  9. British national formulary : BNF 69 (69 ed.). British Medical Association. 2015. p. 552. ISBN 9780857111562.
  10. "Alyacen 1/35 (birth control) medical facts from". Archived from the original on 2016-12-24.
  11. "The Top 300 of 2020". ClinCalc. Retrieved 11 April 2020.
  12. "Ethinyl Estradiol; Norethindrone - Drug Usage Statistics". ClinCalc. Retrieved 11 April 2020.

External links