|Other names||Subacute migratory panniculitis of Vilanova and Piñol|
|Erythema nodosum in a person who had recently had streptococcal pharyngitis|
|Symptoms||Tender red lumps within the skin of both shins|
|Usual onset||20 to 40 years|
|Duration||Up to six weeks|
|Causes||Unclear, strep throat, tuberculosis, inflammatory bowel disease, cancer, sarcoidosis, certain medications|
|Diagnostic method||Symptoms and examination|
|Differential diagnosis||Lupus, α1-antitrypsin deficiency, scleroderma|
|Frequency||1 in 20,000 to 100,000 people|
Erythema nodosum (EN), is an inflammatory condition that involves fat cells under the skin. The main symptom is tender red nodules or lumps within the skin of both shins. These lumps are generally 1 to 10 cm in width. Other symptoms may include joint pain and a slight fever. Scarring or skin breakdown does not occur.
The cause is frequently unclear. Occasionally it may occur due to a variety of causes including strep throat, tuberculosis, inflammatory bowel disease, cancer, sarcoidosis, and certain medications. The underlying mechanism involves a hypersensitivity reaction to an antigen. Diagnosis can often be made based on symptoms and examination, though it may be confirmed by biopsy in cases that are unclear.
Treatment generally is supportive including rest and the use of NSAIDs. Underlying conditions may need to be addressed. Each lesion may last for two weeks with an attack lasting for up to six weeks. About 1 in 20,000 to 100,000 people are affected. Females are affected six time more frequently than males. It is most common in the 20 to 40 year age group. It was first described in English in 1807 by Robert Willan.
Signs and symptoms
Erythema nodosum is characterised by 1–2-inch (25–51 mm) nodules (rounded lumps) below the skin surface, usually on the shins. These subcutaneous nodules can appear anywhere on the body, but the most common sites are the shins, arms, thighs, and torso. Each nodule typically disappears after around two weeks, though new ones may continue to form for up to six or eight weeks. A new nodule usually appears red and is hot and firm to the touch. The redness starts to fade and it gradually becomes softer and smaller until it disappears. Each nodule usually heals completely without scarring over the course of about two weeks. Joint pain and inflammation sometimes continue for several weeks or months after the nodules appear.
Less common variants of erythema nodosum include:
- Ulcerating forms, seen in Crohn's disease
- Erythema contusiforme, when a subcutaneous hemorrhage (bleeding under the skin) occurs with an erythema nodosum lesion, causing the lesion to look like a contusion (bruise)
- Erythema nodosum migrans (also known as subacute nodular migratory panniculitis), a rare form of chronic erythema nodosum characterized by asymmetrical nodules that are mildly tender and migrate over time.
EN is associated with a wide variety of conditions, including:
In about 30–50% of cases, the cause of EN is unknown.
- Streptococcal infection which, in children, is by far the most common precipitant,
- Primary infection of Tuberculosis
- Mycoplasma pneumoniae
- Histoplasma capsulatum
- Epstein-Barr virus
- Coccidioides immitis (Valley fever)
- Cat scratch disease
- Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD): about 15% of patients develop erythema nodosum.
- Behçet's disease
- Cancer, including
Erythema nodosum is probably a delayed hypersensitivity reaction to a variety of antigens. Although circulating immune complexes have been demonstrated in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, they have not been found in idiopathic or uncomplicated cases.
Erythema nodosum is diagnosed clinically. A biopsy can be taken and examined microscopically to confirm an uncertain diagnosis. Microscopic examination usually reveals a neutrophilic infiltrate surrounding capillaries that results in septal thickening, with fibrotic changes in the fat around blood vessels. A characteristic microscopic finding is radial granulomas, well-defined nodular aggregates of histiocytes surrounding a stellate cleft.
Additional evaluation should be performed to determine the underlying cause of erythema nodosum. This may include a full blood count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), antistreptolysin-O (ASO) titer and throat culture, urinalysis, intradermal tuberculin test, and a chest x-ray. The ESR is typically high, the C-reactive protein elevated, and the blood showing an increase in white blood cells.
The ESR is initially very high and falls as the nodules of erythema nodosum. The ASO titer is high in cases associated with a streptococcal throat infection. A chest X-ray should be performed to rule out pulmonary diseases, in particular sarcoidosis and Löfgren syndrome.
Erythema nodosum is self-limiting and usually resolves itself within 3–6 weeks. A recurring form does exist, and in children, it is attributed to repeated infections with streptococcus. Treatment should focus on the underlying cause. Symptoms can be treated with bed rest, leg elevation, compressive bandages, wet dressings, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs). NSAIDs are usually more effective at the onset of EN versus with chronic disease.
Potassium iodide can be used for persistent lesions whose cause remains unknown. Corticosteroids and colchicine can be used in severe refractory cases. Thalidomide has been used successfully in the treatment of Erythema nodosum leprosum, and it was approved by the U.S. FDA for this use in July 1998. According to a 2009 meta-analysis, there is some evidence of benefit for both thalidomide and clofazimine in the treatment of erythema nodosum leprosum.
The term, Subacute Migratory Panniculitis of Vilanova and Piñol, was named after the two famous Catalan dermatologists who provided a brief description and explanation of the disease, Drs. Xavier Montiu Vilanova (1902–1965) and Joaquin Aguade Piñol (1918–1977), in 1954, and was named in 1956.
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