|Pronunciation||klor" oh thye' a zide|
|Trade names||Diuril, others|
|Drug class||Thiazide diuretic|
|Main uses||High blood pressure, swelling|
|Side effects||Nausea, dizziness, headache, increased urination, dehydration, dry mouth, low sodium, low potassium, low magnesium|
|By mouth, IV|
|Typical dose||500 to 1000 mg OD or BID|
|Elimination half-life||45 to 120 minutes|
|Chemical and physical data|
|Molar mass||295.71 g·mol−1|
|3D model (JSmol)|
Chlorothiazide, sold under the brand name Diuril among others, is a medication used to treat high blood pressure and swelling. It is one of a number of first line options for high blood pressure. It may be used for swelling due to heart failure, nephrotic syndrome, or pregnancy. It may be taken by mouth or by injection into a vein.
Common side effects include nausea, dizziness, headache, increased urination, dehydration, dry mouth, low sodium, low potassium, and low magnesium. Other side effects may include allergic reactions, gout, and low blood pressure. While safety is unclear; it has been used as a second line treatment to control blood pressure and swelling in pregnancy. It is a thiazide diuretic.
Chlorothiazide was patented in 1956 and approved for medical use in 1958. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines as an alternative to hydrochlorothiazide. It is available as a [[generic medication]. In the United States 90 tablets of 500 mg costs about 14 USD.
- Nausea / Vomiting
- Excess urine production
- Hypoelectrolytemia (esp. hypokalemia / hypomagnesia)
Marketing of chlorothiazide began in 1957. The research team of Merck Sharp and Dohme Research Laboratories of Beyer, Sprague, Baer, and Novello created a new series of medications, the thiazide diuretics, which includes chlorothiazide. They won an Albert Lasker Special Award in 1975 for this work.
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