Chlorothiazide

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Chlorothiazide
ChlorothiazideCorrected.png
Chlorothiazide-from-xtal-3D-balls.png
Names
Pronunciationklor" oh thye' a zide[1]
Trade namesDiuril, others
  • 6-chloro-1,1-dioxo-2H-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine-7-sulfonamide
Clinical data
Drug classThiazide diuretic[1]
Main usesHigh blood pressure, swelling[2]
Side effectsNausea, dizziness, headache, increased urination, dehydration, dry mouth, low sodium, low potassium, low magnesium[1]
Pregnancy
category
  • US: C (Risk not ruled out)
Routes of
use
By mouth, IV
Typical dose500 to 1000 mg OD or BID[1]
External links
AHFS/Drugs.comMonograph
US NLMChlorothiazide
MedlinePlusa682341
Legal
Legal status
Pharmacokinetics
Bioavailabilitylow
MetabolismNil
Elimination half-life45 to 120 minutes
ExcretionKidney
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC7H6ClN3O4S2
Molar mass295.71 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)
  • O=S(=O)(c1c(Cl)cc2c(c1)S(=O)(=O)/N=C\N2)N
  • InChI=1S/C7H6ClN3O4S2/c8-4-1-5-7(2-6(4)16(9,12)13)17(14,15)11-3-10-5/h1-3H,(H,10,11)(H2,9,12,13) checkY
  • Key:JBMKAUGHUNFTOL-UHFFFAOYSA-N checkY

Chlorothiazide, sold under the brand name Diuril among others, is a medication used to treat high blood pressure and swelling.[2] It is one of a number of first line options for high blood pressure.[2] It may be used for swelling due to heart failure, nephrotic syndrome, or pregnancy.[2] It may be taken by mouth or by injection into a vein.[2]

Common side effects include nausea, dizziness, headache, increased urination, dehydration, dry mouth, low sodium, low potassium, and low magnesium.[1] Other side effects may include allergic reactions, gout, and low blood pressure.[2] While safety is unclear; it has been used as a second line treatment to control blood pressure and swelling in pregnancy.[2][3] It is a thiazide diuretic.[1]

Chlorothiazide was patented in 1956 and approved for medical use in 1958.[4] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines as an alternative to hydrochlorothiazide.[5] It is available as a [[generic medication].[6] In the United States 90 tablets of 500 mg costs about 14 USD.[6]

Medical uses

Dosage

The recommended dose by mouth in adults is 500 to 1000 mg once or twice daily.[1] It is also available as an injection in vials of 500 mg.[1]

Contraindications

Side effects

History

Marketing of chlorothiazide began in 1957.[8] The research team of Merck Sharp and Dohme Research Laboratories of Beyer, Sprague, Baer, and Novello created a new series of medications, the thiazide diuretics, which includes chlorothiazide. They won an Albert Lasker Special Award in 1975 for this work.[9]

The structure has been determined by X-ray crystallography.[10]

See also

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 "Thiazide Diuretics". LiverTox: Clinical and Research Information on Drug-Induced Liver Injury. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. 2012. Archived from the original on 15 May 2021. Retrieved 4 January 2022.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 "Chlorothiazide Monograph for Professionals". Drugs.com. Archived from the original on 5 March 2021. Retrieved 4 January 2022.
  3. "Chlorothiazide Use During Pregnancy". Drugs.com. Archived from the original on 24 October 2020. Retrieved 4 January 2022.
  4. Fischer J, Ganellin CR (2006). Analogue-based Drug Discovery. John Wiley & Sons. p. 456. ISBN 9783527607495. Archived from the original on 2021-11-01. Retrieved 2021-10-04.
  5. World Health Organization (2021). World Health Organization model list of essential medicines: 22nd list (2021). Geneva: World Health Organization. hdl:10665/345533. WHO/MHP/HPS/EML/2021.02.
  6. 6.0 6.1 "Chlorothiazide Prices, Coupons & Savings Tips - GoodRx". GoodRx. Archived from the original on 30 April 2016. Retrieved 4 January 2022.
  7. 7.0 7.1 "Diuril (Chlorothiazide): Side Effects, Interactions, Warning, Dosage & Uses". RxList. Archived from the original on 2019-10-07. Retrieved 2019-10-07.
  8. Eknoyan, Garabed (1997). "1. A history of diuretics". In Seldin, Donald W.; Giebisch, Gerhard H. (eds.). Diuretic Agents: Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology. San Diego: Academic Press. p. 25. ISBN 0-12-635690-4. Archived from the original on 2021-11-13. Retrieved 2021-11-13.
  9. "Historical Awards - The Lasker Foundation". The Lasker Foundation. Archived from the original on 2015-12-23. Retrieved 2021-10-04.
  10. Johnston A, Bardin J, Johnston BF, Fernandes P, Kennedy AR, Price SL, Florence AJ (2011). "Experimental and Predicted Crystal Energy Landscapes of Chlorothiazide". Crystal Growth & Design. 11 (2): 405–413. doi:10.1021/cg1010049.

External links

Identifiers: