Chlorothiazide

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Chlorothiazide
ChlorothiazideCorrected.png
Chlorothiazide-from-xtal-3D-balls.png
Names
Pronunciationklor" oh thye' a zide[1]
Trade namesDiuril, others
  • 6-chloro-1,1-dioxo-2H-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine-7-sulfonamide
Clinical data
Drug classThiazide diuretic[1]
Main usesHigh blood pressure, swelling[2]
Side effectsNausea, dizziness, headache, increased urination, dehydration, dry mouth, low sodium, low potassium, low magnesium[1]
Pregnancy
category
  • US: C (Risk not ruled out)
Routes of
use
By mouth, IV
Typical dose500 to 1000 mg OD or BID[1]
External links
AHFS/Drugs.comMonograph
US NLMChlorothiazide
MedlinePlusa682341
Legal
Legal status
Pharmacokinetics
Bioavailabilitylow
MetabolismNil
Elimination half-life45 to 120 minutes
ExcretionKidney
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC7H6ClN3O4S2
Molar mass295.71 g·mol−1
3D model (JSmol)
  • O=S(=O)(c1c(Cl)cc2c(c1)S(=O)(=O)/N=C\N2)N
  • InChI=1S/C7H6ClN3O4S2/c8-4-1-5-7(2-6(4)16(9,12)13)17(14,15)11-3-10-5/h1-3H,(H,10,11)(H2,9,12,13) checkY
  • Key:JBMKAUGHUNFTOL-UHFFFAOYSA-N checkY
  (verify)

Chlorothiazide, sold under the brand name Diuril among others, is a medication used to treat high blood pressure and swelling.[2] It is one of a number of first line options for high blood pressure.[2] It may be used for swelling due to heart failure, nephrotic syndrome, or pregnancy.[2] It may be taken by mouth or by injection into a vein.[2]

Common side effects include nausea, dizziness, headache, increased urination, dehydration, dry mouth, low sodium, low potassium, and low magnesium.[1] Other side effects may include allergic reactions, gout, and low blood pressure.[2] While safety is unclear; it has been used as a second line treatment to control blood pressure and swelling in pregnancy.[2][3] It is a thiazide diuretic.[1]

Chlorothiazide was patented in 1956 and approved for medical use in 1958.[4] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines as an alternative to hydrochlorothiazide.[5] It is available as a [[generic medication].[6] In the United States 90 tablets of 500 mg costs about 14 USD.[6]

Medical uses

Dosage

The recommended dose by mouth in adults is 500 to 1000 mg once or twice daily.[1] It is also available as an injection in vials of 500 mg.[1]

Contraindications

Side effects

History

Marketing of chlorothiazide began in 1957.[8] The research team of Merck Sharp and Dohme Research Laboratories of Beyer, Sprague, Baer, and Novello created a new series of medications, the thiazide diuretics, which includes chlorothiazide. They won an Albert Lasker Special Award in 1975 for this work.[9]

The structure has been determined by X-ray crystallography.[10]

See also

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 "Thiazide Diuretics". LiverTox: Clinical and Research Information on Drug-Induced Liver Injury. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. 2012. Retrieved 4 January 2022.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 "Chlorothiazide Monograph for Professionals". Drugs.com. Retrieved 4 January 2022.
  3. "Chlorothiazide Use During Pregnancy". Drugs.com. Retrieved 4 January 2022.
  4. Fischer J, Ganellin CR (2006). Analogue-based Drug Discovery. John Wiley & Sons. p. 456. ISBN 9783527607495.
  5. World Health Organization (2021). World Health Organization model list of essential medicines: 22nd list (2021). Geneva: World Health Organization. hdl:10665/345533. WHO/MHP/HPS/EML/2021.02.
  6. 6.0 6.1 "Chlorothiazide Prices, Coupons & Savings Tips - GoodRx". GoodRx. Retrieved 4 January 2022.
  7. 7.0 7.1 "Diuril (Chlorothiazide): Side Effects, Interactions, Warning, Dosage & Uses". RxList. Retrieved 2019-10-07.
  8. Eknoyan, Garabed (1997). "1. A history of diuretics". In Seldin, Donald W.; Giebisch, Gerhard H. (eds.). Diuretic Agents: Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology. San Diego: Academic Press. p. 25. ISBN 0-12-635690-4.
  9. "Historical Awards - The Lasker Foundation". The Lasker Foundation.
  10. Johnston A, Bardin J, Johnston BF, Fernandes P, Kennedy AR, Price SL, Florence AJ (2011). "Experimental and Predicted Crystal Energy Landscapes of Chlorothiazide". Crystal Growth & Design. 11 (2): 405–413. doi:10.1021/cg1010049.

External links

Identifiers: