These subjects are sometimes addressed separately, under the names cardiac physiology and circulatory physiology.
Although the different aspects of cardiovascular physiology are closely interrelated, the subject is still usually divided into several subtopics.
- Cardiac output (= heart rate * stroke volume. Can also be calculated with Fick principle,palpeting method.)
- Stroke volume (= end-diastolic volume − end-systolic volume)
- Ejection fraction (= stroke volume / end-diastolic volume)
- Cardiac output is mathematically ` to systole[clarification needed]
- Inotropic, chronotropic, and dromotropic states
- Cardiac input (= heart rate * suction volume Can be calculated by inverting terms in Fick principle)
- Suction volume (= end-systolic volume + end-diastolic volume)
- Injection fraction (=suction volume / end-systolic volume)
- Cardiac input is mathematically ` to diastole[clarification needed]
- Electrical conduction system of the heart
- Frank–Starling law of the heart
- Wiggers diagram
- Pressure volume diagram
Regulation of blood pressure
- Renin–angiotensin system
- Juxtaglomerular apparatus
- Aortic body and carotid body
- Heart rate
- Total peripheral resistance (primarily due to vasoconstriction of arteries)
- Inotropic state
In turn, this can have a significant impact upon several other variables:
- Stroke volume
- Cardiac output
|Name of circulation||% of cardiac output||Autoregulation||Perfusion||Comments|
|pulmonary circulation||100% (deoxygenated)||Vasoconstriction in response to hypoxia|
|cerebral circulation||15%||high||under-perfused||Fixed volume means intolerance of high pressure. Minimal ability to use anaerobic respiration|
|coronary circulation||5%||high||under-perfused||Minimal ability to use anaerobic respiration. Blood flow through the left coronary artery is at a maximum during diastole (in contrast to the rest of systemic circulation, which has a maximum blood flow during systole.)|
|splanchnic circulation||15%||low||Flow increases during digestion.|
|hepatic circulation||15%||Part of portal venous system, so oncotic pressure is very low|
|renal circulation||25%||high||over-perfused||Maintains glomerular filtration rate|
|skeletal muscular circulation||17%||Perfusion increases dramatically during exercise.|
|cutaneous circulation||2%||over-perfused||Crucial in thermoregulation. Significant ability to use anaerobic respiration|
- Overview Archived January 17, 2007, at the Wayback Machine at Medical College of Georgia
- Joyner, M. J.; Casey, D. P. (2015). "Regulation of Increased Blood Flow (Hyperemia) to Muscles During Exercise: A Hierarchy of Competing Physiological Needs". Physiological Reviews. 95 (2): 549–601. doi:10.1152/physrev.00035.2013. PMC 4551211. PMID 25834232.
- Nosek, Thomas M. "Section 3/3ch11/s3c11_13". Essentials of Human Physiology. Archived from the original on 2016-03-24.
- Nosek, Thomas M. "Section 3/3ch11/s3c11_2". Essentials of Human Physiology.[dead link]
- Nosek, Thomas M. "Section 3/3ch11/s3c11_10". Essentials of Human Physiology. Archived from the original on 2016-03-24.
- Cardiovascular+physiology at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)
- Cardiovascular Physiology Concepts - Comprehensive explanation of basic cardiovascular concepts, based on a textbook of the same name.
- The Gross Physiology of the Cardiovascular System - Mechanical overview of cardiovascular function. Free eBook and video resources.
- Clinical Sciences - Cardiovascular An iPhone app covering detailed cardiovascular physiology and anatomy
- Quantitative Cardiovascular Physiology and Clinical Applications for Engineers