C-fos-induced growth factor

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Available structures
PDBOrtholog search: PDBe RCSB
AliasesVEGFD, VEGF-D, FIGF, C-fos induced growth factor, c-fos induced growth factor (vascular endothelial growth factor D), vascular endothelial growth factor D
External IDsOMIM: 300091 MGI: 108037 HomoloGene: 3288 GeneCards: VEGFD
RefSeq (mRNA)



RefSeq (protein)



Location (UCSC)Chr X: 15.35 – 15.38 MbChr X: 163.16 – 163.19 Mb
PubMed search[3][4]
View/Edit HumanView/Edit Mouse

C-fos-induced growth factor (FIGF) (or vascular endothelial growth factor D, VEGF-D) is a vascular endothelial growth factor that in humans is encoded by the FIGF gene.[5]


The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the platelet-derived growth factor/vascular endothelial growth factor (PDGF/VEGF) family and is active in angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, and endothelial cell growth. This secreted protein undergoes a complex proteolytic maturation, generating multiple processed forms that bind and activate VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3 receptors. The structure and function of this protein is similar to those of vascular endothelial growth factor C.[5]

Tumor metastasis to lymph nodes

Lymph node metastasis is very often associated with several types of human malignancies. Cancer cells’ journey to lymph node takes place largely through lymphatic tunnel located in and around of primary tumor. VEGF-D's interactions with VEGFR-3 predominantly expressed in lymphatic vessels plays a key role in restructuring lymphatic channel and, hence, able to alter its functions related to fluid and cell transport along the conduits. VEGF-D has been established to be over-expressed in both tumor tissues and patients’ serum samples in several types of human cancer. In addition, VEGF-D expression has been implicated with increased incidence of regional lymph node metastasis. In experimental mice study, genetically modified tumor cell that was forced to produce VEGF-D protein have been established to boost up regional lymph nodes metastases.[6]


  1. ^ a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000165197 - Ensembl, May 2017
  2. ^ a b c GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000031380 - Ensembl, May 2017
  3. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  4. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  5. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: FIGF c-fos induced growth factor (vascular endothelial growth factor D)".
  6. ^ Stacker SA, Caesar C, Baldwin ME, Thornton GE, Williams RA, Prevo R, Jackson DG, Nishikawa S, Kubo H, Achen MG (Feb 2001). "VEGF-D promotes the metastatic spread of tumor cells via the lymphatics". Nature Medicine. 7 (2): 186–91. doi:10.1038/84635. PMID 11175849. S2CID 24131240.

External links

Further reading