African histoplasmosis

From WikiProjectMed
Jump to navigation Jump to search
African histoplasmosis
Image of a methenamine silver stained tissue sample, extracted from a case of histoplasmosis, due to the fungal organism, Histoplasma capsulatum var. duboisii

African histoplasmosis is a fungal infection caused by Histoplasma capsulatum var. duboisii, or Histoplama duboisii (Hcd).[1]: 316 [2] Disease has been most often reported in Uganda, Nigeria, Zaire (Democratic Republic of the Congo) and Senegal, as Hcd is exclusive to Africa.[3] In human disease it manifests differently than histoplasmosis (caused by Histoplasma capsulatum, or Hcc), most often involving the skin and bones and rarely involving the lungs.[4] Also unlike Hcc, Hcd has been reported to rarely present in those with HIV, likely due to underreporting.[5][6][7] However, this along with the differences in Hcc and Hcd have been disputed.[2]

The favored locations of African histoplasmosis are "osteoarticular, ganglionic and pulmonary".[8][9] Genitourinary skin damage is rare, occurring in only 4-11% patients and typically as a secondary skin invasion in those with disseminated infection.[10][11]

It presents as "localized with isolated skin, bone, or lymph node infections or disseminated with multiple cutaneous lesions present all over the body, subcutaneous abscesses, enlarged lymph nodes, liver and spleen, and visceral organ enlargement"[8][12][13] Cutaneous manifestations can be isolated or present with nodules, papules, or ulcers.[14][8] They may present with subcutaneous swelling, cold abscesses progressing to spontaneous fistulization, or ulcers that may bud.[14][8] If left alone, lesions may turn into a large ulcer.[10]

See also


  1. James WD, Elston DM, Berger TG, Andrews GC (2006). Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: clinical Dermatology. Saunders Elsevier. ISBN 0-7216-2921-0.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Valero C, Gago S, Monteiro MC, Alastruey-Izquierdo A, Buitrago MJ (January 2018). "African histoplasmosis: new clinical and microbiological insights". Medical Mycology. 56 (1): 51–59. doi:10.1093/mmy/myx020. PMID 28431110.
  3. Gugnani HC (November 2000). "Histoplasmosis in Africa: a review". The Indian Journal of Chest Diseases & Allied Sciences. 42 (4): 271–7. PMID 15597674.
  4. Deepe Jr GS (28 August 2014). "Histoplama capsulatum (Histoplasmosis)". In Bennett JE, Dolin R, Blaser MJ (eds.). Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases (8th ed.). pp. 393–6. ISBN 978-1-4557-4801-3.
  5. Carme B, Ngolet A, Ebikili B, Ngaporo AI (1990-03-01). "Is African histoplasmosis an opportunistic fungal infection in AIDS?". Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 84 (2): 293. doi:10.1016/0035-9203(90)90292-M. PMID 2389325.
  6. Chandenier J, Goma D, Moyen G, Samba-Lefèbvre MC, Nzingoula S, Mbitsi A, et al. (July 1995). "[African histoplasmosis due to Histoplasma capsulatum var. duboisii: relationship with AIDS in recent Congolese cases]" [African histoplasmosis due to Histoplasma capsulatum var. duboisii: relationship with AIDS in recent Congolese cases]. Santé (in français). 5 (4): 227–34. PMID 7582643. Archived from the original on 2023-02-13. Retrieved 2022-02-10.
  7. Antinori S, Magni C, Nebuloni M, Parravicini C, Corbellino M, Sollima S, et al. (January 2006). "Histoplasmosis among human immunodeficiency virus-infected people in Europe: report of 4 cases and review of the literature". Medicine. 85 (1): 22–36. doi:10.1097/ PMID 16523050. S2CID 29349515.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 Darré T, Kpatcha M, Djiwa T, Sewa E, Dorkenoo AM, Kouyaté M, Napo-Koura G (June 2020). "African histoplasmosis of the penis". Oxford Medical Case Reports. 2020 (6): omaa043. doi:10.1093/omcr/omaa043. PMC 7315929. PMID 32617170.
  9. Darré T, Saka B, Mouhari-Touré A, Dorkenoo AM, Amégbor K, Pitche VP, Napo-Koura G (2017). "Histoplasmosis by Histoplasma capsulatum var. duboisii Observed at the Laboratory of Pathological Anatomy of Lomé in Togo". Journal of Pathogens. 2017: 2323412. doi:10.1155/2017/2323412. PMC 5539941. PMID 28804654.
  10. 10.0 10.1 Cipriano A, Neves-Maia J, Lopes V, Fleming CE, Ferreira MA, Bathay J (April 2020). "African histoplasmosis in a Guinea Bissau patient with HIV-2: Case report and review". Journal de Mycologie Médicale. 30 (1): 100904. doi:10.1016/j.mycmed.2019.100904. PMID 31706701.
  11. Pasqualotto AC, Oliveira FM, Severo LC (June 2009). "Histoplasma capsulatum recovery from the urine and a short review of genitourinary histoplasmosis". Mycopathologia. 167 (6): 315–23. doi:10.1007/s11046-009-9182-z. PMID 19184526. S2CID 13490328.
  12. Paixão M, Miot HA, Avancini J, Belda Júnior W (April 2015). "Primary cutaneous histoplasmosis developed in the penis of an immunocompetent patient". Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia. 90 (2): 255–7. doi:10.1590/abd1806-4841.20153224. PMC 4371679. PMID 25831000.
  13. Chaurasia D, Agrawal R, Misra V, Bhargava A (June 2007). "Penoscrotal histoplasmosis following bladder carcinoma". International Journal of Urology. 14 (6): 571–2. doi:10.1111/j.1442-2042.2007.01766.x. PMID 17593111. S2CID 21331549.
  14. 14.0 14.1 Sachdev R, Goel RK, Malviya S, Goel S, Gajendra S (September 2017). "Scrotal Histoplasmosis Masquerading as Fournier's Gangrene". International Journal of Surgical Pathology. 25 (6): 509–510. doi:10.1177/1066896916687078. PMID 28112039. S2CID 26101993.

Further reading